All Brief of 17th and 18th-century Non-Fictional Prose

Francis Bacon All Brief

Q.1. Who wrote the book The Advancement of Learning? 

Ans. The book, The Advancement of Learning is written by Francis Bacon 

Q.2. What is pragmatism?

Ans. Pragmatism means practical consideration of certain things. 

1. Of Marriage and Single Life 

Q.3. How do people leading a single life to consider family life?

Ans. Some young persons leading a single life consider family life to be a bill of charges. 

Q.4. Why being unmarried does not mean anything different for judges and magistrates? 

Ans. The aim of being unmarried is to be free from all burdens. But for Judges and magistrates, it does not have anything special. For if an unmarried judge or magistrate is corrupt he would appoint some guard to get the bribe.

Q.5. How are the chaste women?

Ans. Chaste women are usually proud of their chastity. But this can give a man disciplined and routine life.

Q.6. When, according to Bacon, should a man marry?

Ans. As the author suggests that a young man should think seriously about when he should marry. An old man should not at all marry.

Q.7. What are the three roles played by a wife in a different stage of life?

Ans. The three roles played by a wife in different stages of li are mistress, companion, and nurse. 

Q.8. Who are the impediments to great enterprise according to Bacon?

Ans. Wife and children are impediments to great enterprises. 

Q.9. Why can’t unmarried men be the best citizens? 

Ans. Unmarried lead good citizens. life and so they do not make

II. Of Truth

Q.10. Why did Bacon compare truth to a pearl?

Or, How does the author compare truth? 

Or, According to the author, what is the form of truth?

Ans. Truth is a ‘naked and open daylight’ that illuminates the objects of life. It is like a pearl that shines in a day, not a diamond that shines in the varied lights (say the lights of the candle). 

Q.11. What can be resulted from a mixture of a lie? 

Ans. It is found that a mixture of a lie can result in pleasure for a human being. But this pleasure is not permanent and it loses its appeal in the shortest span of time.

Q.12. Why do people like the mixture of a lie and truth?

Ans. People love to have the taste of mixing the truth with a lie for the reason that it gives people the taste of making vain hopes, false valuations, and imaginations.

Q.13. How does a poet adopt the shadow of a lie?

Ans. A poet adopts the shadow of a lie in making the poetry more appealing to others. The piece of works in which creativity of imagination matters, truth is recognized half-heartedly. The masters of creative arts think that they are the worshippers of beauty, not truth. 

Q.14. What is the “sovereign good” of human nature?

Ans. The love for truth or seeking after the truth is, according to the author, the sovereign good of human nature.

Q.15. What is the condition for people to truth?

Ans. The only condition to get to the truth is to approach it with pity and pure heart not with swelling pride.

Q.16. How does a lie affect humanity? 

Ans. Telling a lie in many matters of human life makes it “false and perfidious”. Added to that, a person who speaks a lie “faces with God and shrinks from humanity.” 

Q.17. How does the author evaluate the poetry?

Ans. The author says that though there is creativity and imagination in poetry, it bears the shadow of the lie to a certain extent.

Q.18. Why do people have a tendency to avoid the truth? 

Ans. People want to avoid the truth because of their natural but corrupt love for lies itself.

III. Of Plantations

Q.19. What is the essay ‘Of Plantation’ about?

Ans. The essay illustrates the interest in English colonization in America.

Q.20. What type of region according to Bacon should be selected for new colonization?

Ans. Bacon prefers to select uninhabited land for new colonization. 

Q.21. In what sense, planting a country is compared to planting a wood?

Ans. The task of planting a country is compared to the task of plantation in wood.

0.22. What type of government that the author suggested installing on a plantation? 

Ans. Government in a plantation should be, on one hand, assisted with some counsels and commissions to exercise martial laws with some limitations.

Q.23. What does Bacon mean by the term ‘Plantation”? 

Ans. The word, plantation means colonization in Of Plantation.

IV. Of Great Place

Q.24. What is a strange desire?

Ans. It is a strange desire to seek power and to lose liberty over he’s self.

Q.25. What is the consequence of downfall from a high place? 

Ans. The consequence of downfall from a high place is tragic and miserable. A man in a high place is always unwilling to forsake his position and for this reason, has to bear unbearable insult and disappointment.

Q.26. When do the men in high places find their fault? 

Ans. The men in a high place for their power and pelf and the flattery of others never become conscious of their faults and weakness which are easily discovered by others. They are the last to discover it.

Q.27. Why are men in great fortunes strangers to themselves? 

Ans. The men in great fortunes are strangers to themselves or ignorant of their own real nature because they are so busy with the duties of their high office that they have no time to look within themselves and understand their own faults.

Q.28. How death comes to men in a high position? 

Ans. Death falls heavy on the men in high positions. They die well-known to others but unknown to themselves.

Q.29. What is performed in God’s theatre?

Ans. In God’s theatre, only good and benevolent act is performed. God created the universe and it was a good act.

Q.30. What are the vices of authority, according to Bacon? 

Ans. The vices of authority are mainly four. They are delays, corruption, roughness, and readiness to favor due to flattery.

Q.31. What does King Solomon says about trivial favor or reference?

Ans. According to King Solomon in the book of Proverbs, a man in a high place should not give trivial favor or preference to anyone because such a man will do wrong or break the law for a piece of bread. 

Q.32. Who was Vespasian?

Ans. Vespasian was a Roman emperor who was one of the emperors whose possession of power improved. 

Q.33. What is the nature of things?

Ans. According to Aristotelian physics, every object has its own proper and fixed place in nature. Bacon says that in nature things move with violent movement till they reach their proper place.

Q.34. How should a man in a high place treat his colleagues? 

Ans. A man in a high place should respect them and often call them for consultation and take opinions when necessary. 

Q.35. Who was Tacitus?

Ans. Tacitus was a good historian of ancient Rome. 

V. Of Revenge

Q.36. What is the outcome of revenge according to Bacon in “Of Revenge”?

Ans. The outcome of revenge is that it puts the law out of the office and offends the law. 

Q.37. What are the two wrongs that one commits when he takes revenge? 

Ans. When a person takes revenge, he commits two wrongs. First, he offends the law, and then, he puts the law out of office.

Q.38. What is the most tolerable sort of revenge? 

Ans. The most tolerable sort of revenge is for those wrongs for which there is no legal remedy.

Q.39. Who is Cosmus? 

Ans. Cosmus was the Duke of Florence, Italy, in the 16th century.

Q.40. What is the spirit of Job? 

Ans. The spirit of Job, a person in the Bible, is nobler and generous. According to him, God is the source of both good and evil, and so both should be equally welcome to us. 

Q.41. Who is Pertinax?

Ans. When the Roman emperor Lucius Aelius Commodus was murdered in 192, the Roman consul Publius Helvius Pertinax became emperor. He, in turn, was slain a year later.

Q.42. How does Bacon argue about a treacherous friend using the spirit of Job? 

Ans. Bacon argues that a treacherous friend can be forgiven as the spirit of Job teaches us that we should accept both good and bad from God’s hands.

Q.43. What is superior to taking revenge? 

Ans. Pardoning or forgiving is superior to taking revenge.

VI. Of Love

Q.44. What is more beholding for love affairs? 

Ans. The stage is more beholding for love affairs than the life of a man.

Q.45. What did Epicurus say about love? 

Ans. According to Epicurus, human beings (man and woman) are sufficiently large theatre one for another. Put simply, it is considered that man is created for engaging with the “little idol” Le. woman rather not thinking of heaven and all the noble objects created for the well-being of the people of society.

Q.46. How does the author differentiate between a flatterer and a lover?

Ans. The author makes a comparison between a flatter and a lover and concludes that a lover surpasses all limits in the flattery of his beloved.

Q.47. What is the difference between a proud man and a lover?

Ans. The author draws a comparison between a proud man and a lover. He says that a lover is more proud than a lover. 

Q.48. What is the case of Paris as love affairs were concerned?

Ans. Paris, son of Priam and Hecuba was a Trojan shepherd. He was chosen as the umpire. Each goddess tempted him with a bribe, Juno with power, Minerva with wisdom, and Venus with the promise of a beautiful woman. He decided to accept Venus’s offer. Paris was awarded the love of Helen, the wife of the Greek Menelaus. His elopement with Helen led to the Trojan war. 

Q.49. What is the true rule in love?

Ans. The true rule in love is that love is ever rewarded either with mutual benefits of the lover and the beloved or continues to create “within inward and secret contempt” for the lover. 

Q.50. How does the author conclude about love?

Ans. The author drew two conclusions: one, in man’s nature a secret inclination and motions towards the love of others, and two, if that love does not spread over a few, there is a chance that it takes many people i.e. the whole of humanity into account. 

Q.51. Who was Epicurus?

Ans. Epicurus was a Greek philosopher.

Q.52. What is the most ordinary cause of single life?

Ans. Having fuller enjoyment of liberty is the most important cause of a single life. 

Q.53. What type of justice is revenge?

Ans. Revenge is a kind of wild justice as it tries to replace the natural rule of law.

Addison and Steele All Brief

Q.1. What was the name of the periodical started by Steele in 1709?

Ans. The periodical is Tatler.

Q.2. Who was the editor of ‘The Spectator’? 

Ans. Steele was the editor of “The Spectator”

Q.3. What is the Tatler? 

Ans. The Tatler was a British literary and society journal founded in 1709 by Richard Steele, who used the pseudonym “Isaac Bickerstall, Esquire”.

Q.4. Write two names of the members of the ‘Spectator’s Club’.

Ans. Sir Roger de Coverley, Will Honeycomb. 

1. The Spectator’s Account of Himself

Q.5. What is the motive for writing ‘The Spectator’s Account of Himself?

Ans. The writer has observed that if a reader does not know the details of the writer, he/she does not find any interest in reading the piece of writing. So, he starts with descriptions of his life. 

Q.6. Which places does the writer visit during his stay in the city?

Ans. He appears everywhere in all the resorts, coffee houses, clubs and inner rooms of politics, Exchange and so on.

Q.7. Why do you think the writer keeps on visiting all the places? 

Ans. He chose the life of a Spectator and observer. So, he needs to observe.

Q.8. What do you think has driven the writer to live as a Spectator?

Ans. The writer’s silent nature has required him to choose the life of a Spectator.

Q.9. How has he managed to be the spokesperson of all occupations?

Ans. Being an observer and then putting the observations into writing, he has become the spokesperson of all occupations. 

Q.10. Which personal information does the writer not want to reveal?

Ans. He does not want to disclose his name, age and lodgings.

Q.11. Why do you think the writer does not want to disclose his name, age and lodgings?

Ans. Name, age and lodgings may make him impartial and people may try to manipulate him.

Q.12. Who inherited Sir Roger’s property?

Ans. Captain Sentry, Sir Roger’s nephew, inherited the property.

2. Of the Club

Q.13. Who is the first member of the Spectator’s Club? 

Ans. Sir Roger de Coverley is the first member of the Spectator’s Club. 

Q.14. Name an English country dance.

Ans. Roger de Coverley is the name of an English country dance. 

Q.15. How old is Sir Roger now?

Ans. Sir Roger is a gentleman of fifty-six years old. 

Q.16. When does Sir Roger behave in an odd manner?

Ans. He behaves in an odd manner only when he is sure that people around him are in the wrong.

Q.17. What is Soho Square?

Ans. Soho Square is a square in Soho, London. It was originally called King Square after Charles II, whose statue stands in the square. It was then the centre of fashionable life. It now marks the eastern limit of the social world of London.

Q.18. Why is Sir Roger a bachelor at the age of fifty-six? 

Ans. Though he is fifty-six years old, he is a bachelor because he was disappointed in love in his youth. 

Q.19. With whom did Sir Roger fall in love in his youth?

Ans. In his youth, he fell in love with a perverse widow. Instead of responding to his love, he was humiliated and frustrated by the widow. 

Q.20. How was Sir Roger before being disappointed in love?

Ans. Before being disappointed in love, Sir Roger was a “fine gentleman”, one who often dined with Lord Rochester, an English poet and courtier of King Charles II’s Restoration court and George Etherege, an English dramatist of the Restoration period.

Q.21. Who was Lord Rochester?

Ans. Lord Rochester was John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester (1647-1680). He was an English poet and courtier of King Charles II’s Restoration court. He became a principal member of the group of wits at the court of Charles II. He was known for his rakish lifestyle. In 1669 he committed treason by boxing the ears of Thomas Killigrew in sight of the monarch.

Q.22. Who was Sir George Etherege? 

Ans. Sir George Etherege (c. 1636 c. 1692) was an English dramatist of the Restoration period. He was known for his creation of the comedy of intrigue and his Restoration plays. His wit and banter in his plays came out in a dull, dark age, which mostly uplifted and encouraged the people, making him and his plays incredibly popular.

Q.23. Why did Sir Roger kick Bully Dawson?

Ans. Sir Roger kicked Bully Dawson, a renowned gambler of London in the time of Charles I, in a public coffee house for insulting him by calling him a youngster.

Q.24. Who was Bully Dawson?

Ans. Bully Dawson was a renowned gambler of London at the time of Charles II. He was a man of low morality who aped the higher classes and tried to get into their society. His name has become an example of a swaggering fool. 

Q.25. What is the Game Act?

Ans. It is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom passed in 1831 to protect game birds by establishing a close season when they could not be legally taken.

Q.26. What did the Templar’s father want him to be?

Ans. The Templar’s father wants to see him a barrister. 

Q.27. What kind of person is Sir Andrew Freeport?

Ans. He is a person of untiring industry, strong reason, and great experience. He has noble and generous notions of trade. 

Q.28. How does Sir Andrew Freeport become rich?

Ans. He has become rich by means of his own efforts and hard work. 

Q.29. What does Sir Andrew Freeport represent? Ans. He is a representative of the fast-growing English commercial groups who were then making up a significant proportion of the middle class. 

Q.30. Why has Captain Sentry failed to achieve promotion?

Ans. Captain Sentry has failed to achieve promotion because of his modesty. In military service, one needs to possess merit and the art of impressing the officers with the merit to get a promotion. Captain Sentry possesses the necessary merit to be promoted, but he is so modest that he cannot exhibit his merit to the officers. 

Q.31. Why does Captain Sentry resign from his job?

Ans. In military service, one needs to possess merit and the art of impressing the officers with the merit to get a promotion. Captain Sentry possesses the necessary merit to be promoted, but he is so modest that he cannot exhibit his merit to the officers. So, he resigns from his job in the military because he does not consider himself fit for it.

Q.32. What was the financial condition of Captain Sentry? 

Ans. Financially, he is rich enough. He has a small estate of his and is the next heir to Sir Roger.

Q.33. How does Steele describe Will Honeycomb? 

Ans. Steele describes him as being familiar with the gallantries and pleasures of the age. He is also described as “very careful of his person” so he can hide his true age.

Q.34. Who is a lady-killer among the members of the Club?

Ans. Will Honeycomb is a lady-killer among the members of the Club.

Q.35. Who was the Duke of Monmouth?

Ans. The Duke of Monmouth was the illegitimate son of Charles II. 

Q.36. What type of man is the Clergyman? 

Ans. He is very religious, learned and philosophic but he is of the utmost breeding and therefore good enough for the club. 

Q.37. What is a chamber counsellor?

Ans. A chamber counsellor is one who gives advice only in private. 

Q.38. Why was Sir Roger given priority? 

Ans. As Sir Roger was the landlord of the whole congregation, he was given priority.

Q.39. What is the Inner Temple?

Ans. The Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London, where lawyers resided or had their offices and where students studied law. To be called to the Bar and practise as a barrister in England and Wales, one must belong to one of these Inns.

3. Sir Roger at Church

Q.40. What is the social value of the

Ans. On Sunday people gather at church to offer their prayers to God. It is also a social gathering where people get a chance to converse and appear in their fresh look and with the clean dress. According to Addison, people would have become savages if they did not attend church on Sunday. Their attendance in the church keeps them away from barbarism.

Q.41. How does Sunday clear away the rust of the whole week? 

Ans. Sunday clears away the rust of the whole week by refreshing the notions of religion in the minds of the villagers and refreshing their minds from the monotonous routine work of the whole week. 

Q.42. What is the significance of the Sunday?

Ans. As described in the Book of Genesis, God worked hard to create the heavens and the earth in six days and took rest on the seventh day and this seventh day is Sunday.

Q.43. What is the ‘Change?

Ans. The ‘Change refers to the Royal Exchange in London where business is transacted. 

Q.44. Why is Sir Roger a good churchman?

Ans. Sir Roger is a good churchman because he is a regular church and upholds its rights and privileges. 

Q.45. What is pulpit cloth?

Ans. It is a piece of cloth which is used to cover the pulpit, the raised platform from which the clergyman speaks.

Q.46. Who is John Matthews?

Ans. John Matthews is one of the tenants of Sir Roger.

Q.47. What is a tithe?

Ans. The tithe is the tenth part of the product to be given to the church.

Q.48. What did Sir Roger do to beautify the inside of his church?

Ans. He has decorated and beautified the inside of the church with several texts of his own choosing on his own accord and at his own expense.

4. His Account of his Disappointment in Love

Q.49. At what age did Sir Roger become a sheriff?

Ans. He became a sheriff at the age of twenty-three. 

Q.50. Why did the widow go to court?

Ans. She went to court concerning the share of her husband’s estate that she would be getting.

Q.51. Why was the whole court in the widow’s favour? 

Ans. The widow acted to be dedicated to her husband, poor and sad. 

Q.52. What does Sir Roger say about the lady’s not willing to marry anyone?

Ans. Sir Roger says that the widow finds pleasure in friendship only. 

Q.53. Why did Sir Roger improve his lifestyle? 

Ans. He improved his lifestyle to make the widow happier.

Q.54. What has kept Sir Roger distant from the widow?

Ans. The widow’s bewildering talks have kept Sir Roger distant from her.

Q.55. What is the religious value of Sunday? 

Ans. The observance of the Sunday refreshes the notions of religion in the minds of the villagers.

5. Death of Sir Roger

Q.56. Whose letter is presented in the essay ‘Death of Sir Roger?

Ans. The butler of Sir Roger wrote a letter informing the death of Sir Roger to his friend. The butler’s letter is presented in the essay.

Q.57. What did Sir Roger bequeath to the widow lady before his death?

Ans. Sir Roger gave a pearl necklace and a couple of silver bracelets set with jewels, which belonged to his mother.

Q.58. What did Addison get on the death of Sir Roger? 

Ans. Addison got all the books of Sir Roger.

Q.59. Where was Sir Roger buried? 

Ans. Sir Roger was buried among the Coverley families, beside the left hand of his father.

Q.60. How many men carried Sir Roger’s coffin? 

Ans. Six men carried his coffin.

Q.61. Who was Andrew Freeport?

Ans. Sir Andrew Freeport was Sir Roger’s antagonist and enemy. 

Q.62. Who is the believer of the maxim “A penny saved is a got”?

Ans. Sir Andrew Freeport is a believer in the maxim.

Q.63. What is a spectator’s club? 

Ans. The Spectator’s Club is the group of men whom Steele sits and chats with most often. They are a group of fine gentlemen. 

Q.64. What is a country Sunday?

Ans. A country Sunday refers to a Sunday spent in the countryside.

Q.65. What is a catechising day?

Ans. It is a day on which the priest teaches children through the question-answer method – the priest puts the questions and the children answer them.

All Brief Samuel Johnson

Q.1. “The most heterogeneous ideas are yoked by violence together”-who wrote this and why? 

Ans. Samuel Johnson composed this line to define the idea of conceit.

Q.2. What is the purpose of the volume The Lives of the Poets”? 

Ans. This volume exhibits Johnson’s critical powers and prejudices.

Q.3. What is Davideis?

Ans. Davideis is a work in which materials could not be collected without the study of many years. It was possible for him to write the greater part of this book with a mind of the greatest vigor and activity when he was still a student.

Q.4. Why was The Cutter of Coleman Street censured?

Ans. The Cutter of Coleman Street was treated on the stage severely and it was censured as a satire on the king’s party. 

Q.5. When did he die?

Ans. The end of Cowley’s life came in 1667 at the Penthouse in Chester and then he was forty-nine only. 

Q.6. How did Dr. Sprat represent him? 

Ans. Abraham Cowley was represented by Dr. Sprat as the most amiable of mankind. It was posthumous praise and it was never contradicted by envy or faction.

Q.7. What was the name of the epic poem that Cowley attempted to write?

Ans. The epic poem, Cowley attempted to write, is the Davideis which he designed to have twelve books, but left it unfinished. 

Q.8. What does Dr. Johnson represent?

Ans. Dr. Johnson eminently represents the persistence of classical dogma. He is the central figure in an age of bourgeois classicism. 

Q.9. What do we find in The Lives of the Poets?

Ans. The Lives of the Poets is a progress of the doctrine of Dr. Johnson. Here we find the secret movement of a thought that is shifting toward the future.

Q.10. Who is Donne?

Ans. Donne is known as the leader of the metaphysical school of poetry. He is known for his use of metaphysical conceits in his poems. 

Q.11. How does Cowley use love in his poetry?

Ans. Cowley’s love poems are philosophical and there are more perplexities applied to love in his poems.

Q.12. How does Donne use the tears of lovers? 

Ans. Donne uses the tears of lovers to a great poetical account. Donne has extended them into the world. 

Q.13. What Pindaric odes did Cowley paraphrase? 

Ans. Cowley paraphrased Olympic Ode and Nemaean Ode following Pindar.

Q.14. What does the reader find in the Nemean Ode?

Ans. The reader observes in the Nemacan Ode that “the original new moon, her tender forehead, and her horns” is superadded by Cowley’s paraphrase.

Q.15. What does Cowley think of the Pindaric style?

Ans. Cowley thinks of the Pindaric style to be the highest and noblest kind of writing in verse. It can be adapted only to high and noble subjects.

Q.16. What are the basic differences between Cowley and Tasso as writers of epic?

Ans. The resemblance of Cowley’s work to Tasso’s is only that they both exhibit the agency of celestial and infernal spirits. But they differ widely. Cowley supposes them to operate upon the mind by suggestions, while Tasso represents them as promoting or obstructing events by an external agency. 

Q.17. How has Johnson described truth and reason?

Ans. According to Johnson truth is always the truth, and the reason is always a reason. They have intrinsic and unalterable value. It constitutes that intellectual gold that defies destruction. 

Q.18. Why was Cowley censored for Guardian?

Ans. Cutter of Coleman Street was taken for a satire on the king’s party which was severely censored. 

Q.19. What are the essential features of Cowley’s poetry?

Ans. Cowley had his own wit, Curiosity, and elegance which took different farms at different times. He was a man of learning and intellect.

Q.20. What are the effects of metaphysical conceits? 

Ans. The effect of metaphysical conceits is to startle and surprise. 

Q.21. What have the metaphysical poets written?

Ans. It is alleged that metaphysical poets have written rhymes instead of poems. It is rhyme, not poetry that they have written.

Q.22. How does Cowley portray love and lover?

Ans. To Cowley love and lover are supposed to be his lady acquainted with the ancient laws and rites of the sacrifice.

Q.23. What is wit?

Ans. Wit is the product of the brain and needs learning. 

Q.24. What is aggregation?

Ans. Aggregation is the root of sublimity. Great thoughts are generally accepted because their positions are not limited by exception.

Q.25. What is an ode?

Ans. An ode is an elaborate lyric poem. 

Q.26. What is a sonnet?

Ans. A sonnet is a poem of fourteen iambic pentameter lines having two parts-octave and sestet. 

Q.27. Who was the famous biographer of Samuel Johnson?

Or, Who is Sprat?

Ans. Mr. Sprat is Cowley’s biographer. 

Q.28. What kind of biographer is Dr. Johnson?

Ans. As a biographer, Dr. Johnson threw a stream of light on both the merits and demerits of the metaphysical poet including Cowley. 

Q.29. What is Cowley’s idea of love?

Ans. Cowley added more perplexities to love. With the passage of time. Love also changes its character. 

Q.30. What does Cowley consider the Pindaric Odes?

Ans. Cowley considers Pindaric odes in the least of the lost inventions of antiquity.

Q.31. Who are the metaphysical poets?

Ans. John Donne, George Herbert, Richard Crashaw, Andrew Marvell, and Henry Vaughan are the most prominent metaphysical poets. 

Q.32. What kind of writing is ‘The Guardian’ by Cowley?

Ans. “The Guardian’ is a comedy..

Q.33. What kind of odes did Cowley write?

Ans. Abraham Cowley liked and wrote mainly Pindarique Odes. 

Q.34. Who first coined the term ‘metaphysical poets”?

Ans. Samuel Johnson

Q.35. Whom did Cowley follow in writing odes?

Ans. Cowley followed Pinder and his style in writing odes. Because he considered the Pindaric style to be the highest and the noblest kind of writing.

Q.36. What type of men were the metaphysical poets? 

Ans. The metaphysical poets were men of learning, men of wit and conceit. 

Q.37. How does Cowley compare a lover to Manna? 

Ans. Cowley suggests that manna was less inclusive of a diet. The taste of it was like “wafers made with honey.” 

Q.38. What type of composition is The Life of Cowley? 

Ans. The Life of Cowley is a biography and critical study of his character and works.

Q.39. What kind of poet was Cowley? 

Ans. The school of metaphysical poetry flourished at the beginning of the seventeenth century and Cowley belonged to this race of writers.

Q.40. What do metaphysical conceits do? 

Ans. Metaphysical conceits are drawn from all spheres of knowledge help to startle and surprise the readers.

Edmund Burke All Brief

Q.1. Who was Edmund Burke?

Ans. Edmund Burke was an Anglo-Irish Statesman, author, orator and political philosopher. He served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party.

Q.2. When was Burke elected a member of the British Parliament? 

Ans. In 1774, E. Burke was elected as a member of the British Parliament through a real electoral contest for Bristol, the second city of England. 

Q.3. When and why did Burke lose his seat in the Parliament?

Ans. Burke was a supporter of Free-trade with Ireland and his campaign against the persecution of Catholics in Ireland made him unpopular in the constituency and caused him to lose his seat in the Parliament in 1780.

Q.4. What was Burke’s greatest political error?

Ans. It was regarded by many later that Burke committed the greatest political error by supporting Fox-North’s coalition government.

Q.5. How was Burke involved in Fox’s India Bill?

Ans. As Burke continued to hold the office of Paymaster under the Fox-North’s coalition, he got involved with Fox’s India Bill. 

Q.6. Who was the first governor-general of India?

Ans. Warren Hastings was the first governor-general of India.

Q.7. What was the aim of the Bill brought by Burke? 

Ans. The aim of the Bill brought by Burke was to bring reform in unscrupulous privileges enjoyed by the East India Company. 

Q.8. How was the East India Company formed?

Ans. The East India Company was formed by “a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, under the title of “The Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies.”

Q.9. When and where did the East India Company set its trading posts in India?  

Ans. The East India Company set up its first trading post in the provinces of Madras, and Bombay of India in 1610 and 1611 respectively.

Q.10. Who was Hafiz Rhamat?

Ans. Hafiz Rahmat Khan (1710-74) was a leading Rohilla chief, and one of the bravest men of his time. He was famous throughout the East for the elegance of his literature. He had borne the brunt of Shuja-Ul-Daula’s invasion. 

Q.11. How was Hafiz Rahmat Khan killed?

Ans. Hafiz Rahmat Khan’s head was cut off and delivered for money to a barbarian.

Q.12. What is the consequence of the Killing of Hafiz Rahmat?

Ans. The whole nation of the Rohillas is slaughtered or banished. The country is laid waste with fire and sword. The country has become almost a dreary desert covered with bushes and briars and jungles full of wild beasts. 

Q.13. How was the English behaviour towards the Indians?

Ans. The behaviour of the English over there in India even after twenty years was as crude as it had been the first day. The young English who came to govern India were without society, and without sympathy with the natives, they had no more social habits with the people. 

Q.14. How were the two Begums of Oudh maltreated by a body of British troops? 

Ans. The two Begums of Oudh were exploited by a body of British troops. As the Company wanted money, they were accused of rebellion. The land assigned for the maintenance of the women was seized and confiscated. Their jewels were put on a pretend auction and bought at a very low price.

Q.15. What is Benares?

Ans. Benares is the capital city of the Indian religion. The city grew great in commerce and opulence. It was so secure by the pious veneration of the people that in all wars and in the violence of power, there was a sure asylum both for the poor and rich. 

Q.16. Who was the Nabob of Farruckabad?

Ans. Muzafar Jang was the Nabob of Farruckabad. 

Q.17. How was the fate of the British subjects in India ruined by the Company?

Ans. Every British subject in India who was active in the discovery of peculations was ruined tragically. They were dragged from the highest in place to the lowest, and eventually, they had been driven from India.

Q.18. Who was Mahomed Reza?

Ans. Mahomed Reza was the second Mussulman in Bengal who was distinguished by the ill-omened honour of the countenance and protection of the Court of Directors. He was stripped of all his employees and reduced to the lowest condition without any pretense of any inquiry into his conduct or behavior.

Q.19. How was Rajah Nundcomar killed?

Ans. Nundcomar was hanged in the face of all his nation for a pretended crime, upon an ex post facto British act of Parliament, in the midst of his evidence against Mr. Hastings.

Q.20. What order did Mr. Hastings and his accomplices pass to the Directors regarding the corruption of the Company? 

Ans. Mr. Hastings and his accomplices ordered the Directors not to carry into effect any resolution for the removal of Mr. Hastings and Mr. Hornby.

Q.21. Who was the first governor-general of India? 

Ans. Warren Hastings was the first governor-general of India.

Q.22. When did Edmund Burke deliver his famous speech on Fox’s East India Bill? 

Ans. Burke delivered his famous Speech on Fox’s East India Bill in 1783.

Q.23. Who were the Tartars

Ans. The Tartars are the members of the combined forces of central Asian peoples, including Mongols and Turks, who under the leadership of Genghis Khan conquered much of Asia and eastern Europe in the early 13th century, and under Tamerlane (14th century) established an empire with its capital at Samarkand. 

Q.24. With what does Bruke compare the East India Bill?

Ans. Burke compares the East India Bill to Magna Carta in order to ensure the basic human rights of the Indians.

Q.25. What was the condition of the people of this huge terrain during the rule of the East India Company?

Ans. Throughout this vast tract of land, there was not a man who could eat a mouthful of rice but by permission of the East India Company. 

Q.26. Who was Faizullah Khan?

Ans. Faizullah Khan was a Rohilla chief who had been allowed to retain a large Jagir at Rampur after the 1774 campaign. He had been pressed to make extra contributions to the Company. 

Q.27. Who introduced the ‘East India Bill’?

Ans. “East India Bill” was drafted and introduced by a fox.

Q.28. What is ‘Megna Carta”?

Ans. Megna Carta means the great charters conceded by King John in 1215 and it was confirmed by King Henry III in 1265. It is a charter to restrain power and to destroy monopoly.

Rashedul Islam
Rashedul Islam

Hi, This is Rashedul. Researcher and lecturer of English literature and Linguistics.

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