Classics in Translation NU Exam-2020

National University

Hon’s 4th Year

Especial suggestion and notes

Classics in Translation NU Exam-2020

Exam – 2020

Part – C

  1. Compare and contrast between Hector and Achilles.
  2. Discuss “The Frogs” as a literary criticism or satire.
  3. Write on Homer as a realist with reference to his epic poem “The Iliad”.
  4. Discuss “The Iliad” as an epic or primary epic.
  5. Discuss “Phaedra” as a tragedy of unrequited love.
  6. Discuss the role of the Nurse in Seneca’s play “Phaedra”.
  7. Discuss the theme of hereditary guilt in “Agamemnon.”
  8. Sketch the character of Clytemnestra.
  9. Discuss Medea as a tragic heroine.

Part – B

  1. Write in brief about Aeschylus gods and goddesses.
  2. Bring out the dramatic significance of “Red Carpet Episode or Scene” in Agamemnon.
  3. Discuss the pattern of life spent by Hippolytus.
  4. What role does Pluto play in “The Frogs”?
  5. Why did Jason marry Glauce in “Medea”?
  6. Write a short note on Cassandra.
  7. Write a short note on Homeric simile.
  8. Question: Discuss the role of Dionysus in the play “The Frogs”.
  9. Write a note on the shield of Achilles
  10. Write a short note on Trojan Horse
  11. Very Important information on the epic “Iliad” for short questions.
  12. Very important information on “Medea” for short questions


  1. Who is Aristophanes?
    Ans: A comic playwright of Athens.
  2. Who is Homer?
    Ans: An Epic poet.
  3. Who is Aeschylus?
    Ans: Great poet and Playwright.
  4. Who is Seneca?
    Ans: A famous Roman Philosopher and statesman.
  5. Where is Medea’s House?
    Ans: in Corinth.
  6. Who guarded the “Golden Fleece?”
    Ans: Fiery Dragon.
  7. What was Hector’s last request to Achilloes?
    Ans: to hand over his body to his kinsmen for a proper burial.
  8. How does Cassandra accept her own fate?
    Ans: Cassandra accepts her own fate with dignity.
  9. Whom did Charon ferry?
    Ans: Charon, the ferryman of Heads, ferried Dionysus, but not Xanthias across the lake of the dead.
  10. When did Phaedra confess her sin?
    Ans: when she saw the dead of hippolytus.
  11. Who was Xanthias?
    Ans: the slave of Dionysus.
  12. Who is Euripides?
    Ans: Euripides is a notable writer of tragedies.
  13. How does Clytemnestra behave after killing her husband?
    Ans: Clytemnestra exults openly after killing her husband and shows no remorse or shame.
  14. Who is the paramour of Clytemnestra?
    Ans: Aegisthus.
  15. How did Clytemnestra react to her husband’s return?
    Ans: Clytemnestra expressed her gratification at the safe return of her husband.
  16. How did Apollo play havoc in the Greek camp?
    Ans: Apollo sent a Plague upon the Greek camp which spelled havoc.
  17. What last request does the ghost of Patroclus make to Achilles?
    Ans: The ghost begs the Patroclus begs that their bones may lie in the same golden urn which Thetis gave to her son.
  18. Whose mouthpiece is Medea?
    Ans: Medea is the mouthpiece of such women who are loved and deserted by men.
  19. Who were the founders to the city of Troy?
    Ans: Dardamus and Laomedon.
  20. Who is the Neptune?
    Ans: Neptune is Peseidon, the god of the sea.
  21. Who is Chrysies?
    Ans: The daughter of Chryses, the priest of Apollo.
  22. Who is Calshes?
    Ans: The Greek Prophet.
  23. Name the plays of the Argives Trilogy.
    Ans: The Oresteia, Proteus and Seven against Thebes.
  24. What happened to Iphaigenia?
    Ans: She was killed by her father, Agamemnon.
  25. What is Lethe?
    Ans: Lethe in Classical Mythology, is the river in Hades whose water caused forgetfulness of the past in those who drank the lyre.
  26. Who is Apollo?
    Ans: Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto and the twin brother of Artemis.
  27. Name the two travelles in “The Frogs”.
    Ans: Dionysus and Xanthias.
  28. Who is Dionysus?
    Ans: God of the Fertility and wine.
  29. What does “Deux EX Machina” mean?
    Ans: It is a Latin Phrase meaning a god from the machine.
  30. What was the name of the king Prianm’s Wife?
    Ans: Hecabe
  31. In what respect is Hector better than Achilles?
    Ans: Hector fights against gods as well as mightiest of heroes, yet he presents himself in a nobler light than Achilles, especially in his dutifulness to the family.
  32. How did Aphrodite assist Paris?
    Ans: Aphrodite created a mist to cover Paris and took him away to the bed chamber of Helen.
  33. Who is Clachas?
    Ans: Clachas, the son of Thetor, was the most famous soothsayer among the Greeks at the time of the Trojan War.
  34. What was the supreme message of the Greek Tragedies?
    Ans: The supreme message of the Greek Tragedies is struggle of the man against the fate.
  35. Why did Clytemnestra kill Agamemnon?
    Ans: Clytemnestra trapped Agamemnon in a net in the bath and hacked him to death with three blows of an axe.
  36. What were the advantages of Jason’s marriage with Gluce?
    Ans: There were manifold advantages of Jason’s marriage for the second time. He would be pollitically rehabilitated and succeed to the thron on the death of his father-in-law.
  37. Why Aeschylus is called a stern moralist?
    Ans: Aeschylus is considered to be a stern moralist because each of his plays inculcates a moral.
  38. Why did Medea not want to kill Jason?
    Ans: As it would relieve Jason of his Suffering.
  39. Who was Hercules?
    Ans: Harcules was the famous hero who performed twelve labors.
  40. What kind of tragedy of Senecan’s Phaedra?
    Ans: May be called the human tragedy of a fatal love.
  41. How does Phaedra express her firm determination of love?
    Ans: Phaedra emphasized that she could not avoid what she desired and she would follow Hippolytus him throught fire and water, mountains, and woods, mad for his love.
  42. What is an epic?
    Ans: an epic is a long narrative poem.
  43. Why did medea decide to kill her own children?
    Ans: medea thought that her wronged children would be the fittets instruments of her vengeance.
  44. What were Molossisans?
    Ans: Fierce dogs of that place which was near Macedonia.
  45. What are the rules of the contest as announce as announced by Dionysus?
    Ans: Dionysus makes it clear that there will be no wastage of time, elegance of expression will be there.
  46. Why did Thetis disguise her son Achilles?
    Ans: she knew that Achilles could die young if he went to war.
  47. Why was Phaedra angry with theseus?
    Ans: Because her husband had not kept his vows by giving her regular company.
  48. How did Calchas advise Agnmemnon?
    Ans: To send back Chryseis without ransom and delay.
  49. How does Helen look?
    Ans: Helen is a symbol of Flawless beauty.
  50. Who was the next to Achilles in physical prowess?
    Ans: Ranking next to Achilles was Telamonian Aias. (Ajax)
  51. What is called Nereid Hosts?
    Ans: Fifty amiable sea-monsters.
  52. Who are the eminent Eleusinian deities?
    Ans: Persephone, Demeter and Iacehus.
  53. Why did Jason marry the daughter of Creon?
    Ans: As told by Jason to medea he married the daughter of Creon not for love, but for political expediency.
  54. How did Phaedra die?
    Ans: Phaedra committed suicide for what she had done.
  55. What did Achilles ask him mother Thetis for?
    Ans: To enlist the services of Zeus to this end.
  56. Why did the Greek flect unable to move?
    Ans: AS Artemis, the virgin goddess was displeased at the killing of the hare, her sacred animal.
  57. What did Hera offer Paris?
    Ans: A rich kindom and power.
  58. What was Argo?
    Ans: Argon was a ship built by Jason and his men.
  59. What does Iliad mean?
    Ans: Iliad means “the thing about Ilion”.
  60. How does the Iliad come to the end?
    Ans: The Iliad comes to an end with the funeral rites of Hector.
  61. Who is Pluto?
    Ans: Pluto is the son of Saturn and Ops.
  62. What type of comedy is The Frogs?
    Ans: A satirical Comedy.
  63. Who was Iphigenia?
    Ans: Agamemnon’s daughter.
  64. Why did Agamemnon refuse to walk on the red carpet?
    Ans: As it was only privilege of gods.
  65. Who was Artemis?
    Ans: The ancient Greek goddess of hunting, the wilderness and wild animals.
  66. Whom did Pluto marry?
    Ans: Proserpina.
  67. Who is the paramour of chytemnestra?
    Ans: Her paramour is Aegisthus.
  68. What is the main theme of Medea?
    Ans: Medea is a hymn of the rise and emancipation of women, long held in bondage.
  69. Who is the mother of Helen?
    Ans: Leda is the mother of Helen.
  70. What is Achilles’ heel?
    Ans: Achilles’ heel is the weak point of Achilles.


  1. Compare and contrast between Hector and Achilles.

Introduction: Achilles and Hector figure illustriously as the two greatest heroes in the national and universal epic “The Iliad” by Homer composed in Mid-8th Century BC. They are the power houses of Greece and Troy. It has been a crux matter of finding out similarities and dissimilarities between them. Here the compare and contrast are unequivocally or clearly displayed between these warriors.

ভূমিকাঃ Achilles এবং Hector হচ্ছে দু’জন বিখ্যাত নায়ক চরিত্র যারা জাতীয় এবং সর্বজনীন মহাকাব্য “The Iliad” এর নায়ক যা ৮ম শতাব্দী বি.সি তে হোমার প্রকাশিত করেন। তারা হলেন গ্রীস এবং ট্রয় নগরীর প্রধান শক্তির উৎস। তাদের মধ্যে সাদৃশ্য ও বৈসাদৃশ্য খুঁজে বের করা বেশ জটিল। এখানে এই দুই বিখ্যাত যোদ্ধার মধ্যে মিল এবং অমিল পরিষ্কারভাবে উপস্থাপন করা হলো।

Similarities: A lot of similarities have sketched by Homer between Achilles and Hector. These are as follows:

Warriors of the most destructive Trojan War

One of the similarities between them is that they both are warriors in the Trojan war. They lead their troops into the battle and are great fighters. During the war, they engage themselves in a duel that lasts for hours and hours since they are approximately matched. But Achilles is more powerful and daring than Hector because in absence of Achilles the Trojans progresses well in the war. Nestor declares Achilles strength and Importance.

‘Achilles, who in the day of battle is a tower of strength to the Achaeans’.

But Hector is not less powerful as Achilles himself declares about Hector’s strength and leading power after killing him.

“Friends — lords of the Argives, O my captains! 
Now that the gods have let me kill this man 
Who caused us agonies, loss on crushing loss – 
More than the rest of their men combined,”

So, they are similarly mighty warriors without any doubt.

সাদৃশ্য সমূহঃ হোমার Achilles ও Hector এর মধ্যে বহু সাদৃশ্য অঙ্কন করেছেন। এগুলো নিম্নরুপঃ

ধ্বংসাত্মক ট্রয় এর যুদ্ধের যোদ্ধা

তাদের মধ্যে মিলগুলির মধ্যে একটি হ’ল তারা উভয়ই ট্রোজান যুদ্ধের যোদ্ধা। তারা দুর্দান্ত যোদ্ধা এবং তারা তাদের সৈন্যদের যুদ্ধে নেতৃত্ব দেন। যুদ্ধ চলাকালীন, তারা নিজেদের মধ্যে মুখোমুখি যুদ্ধে জড়িত হয় যা ঘন্টার পর ঘন্টা স্থায়ী হয় কারণ তারা দুজনই খুব দক্ষ যোদ্ধা। তবে অ্যাকিলিস হেক্টরের চেয়ে বেশি শক্তিশালী এবং সাহসী কারণ অ্যাকিলিসের অনুপস্থিতিতে ট্রোজানরা  যুদ্ধে বেশ ভাল উন্নতি করে। নেস্টর অ্যাকিলিসের শক্তি এবং গুরুত্ব ঘোষণা করে।

‘Achilles, who in the day of battle is a tower of strength to the Achaeans’.

কিন্তু হেক্টর ও কম শক্তিশালী নন কারণ অ্যাকিলিস তাকে হত্যা করার পর তার শক্তি এবং নেতৃত্ব সম্পর্কে ঘোষণা করেন।

“Friends — lords of the Argives, O my captains! 
Now that the gods have let me kill this man 
Who caused us agonies, loss on crushing loss – 
More than the rest of their men combined,”

সুতরাং কোনো সন্দেহ নেই যে তারা দুজনই দুর্দান্ত যোদ্ধা।

Venerated and respected

Next similarity can be figured out in respect of veneration. Actually, they were the inevitable part of their camps. Both sides people and warriors venerated them like god and they were also respected by gods and goddesses as well.

‘No man may fight Achilles, for one of the gods is always with him’.

By this remark of Aeneas, he means to say though Achilles is supported by immortals, he also confesses that Achilles is more powerful than he is. Such a respect is rare one.

উৎসাহিত এবং সম্মানিত

পরবর্তী সাদৃশ্য বিবেচনা করা যেতে পারে সম্মানের ক্ষেত্রে। আসলে, তারা ছিল তাদের শিবিরগুলির অনিবার্য অংশ। উভয় পক্ষের লোক এবং যোদ্ধারা তাদের ঈশ্বরের মতো উপাসনা করতো এমনকি দেবদেবীরাও তাদের শ্রদ্ধা করতো।

কোনও মানুষ অ্যাকিলিসের বিরুদ্ধে লড়াই করতে পারে না, কারণ দেবতাদের একজন সর্বদা তাঁর পাশে থাকে

অ্যানিয়াসের এই মন্তব্যে তিনি বলতে চাইছেন যদিও অ্যাকিলিস অমর বা দেবদেবী দ্বারা সমর্থিত, তিনি স্বীকার করেছেন যে অ্যাকিলিস তার চেয়ে বেশি শক্তিশালী। এ জাতীয় শ্রদ্ধা এক বিরল দৃষ্টান্ত।

Pride existed in both of them

In term of comparison, they must be considered to be boastful and are filled with egoism. When Agamemnon snatches away Achilles’s concubine and insults him, he feels extremely dishonor and leaves the battle field as long as his intimate friend Patroclus is killed by Hector.

‘Forever quarreling is dear to your heart, and wars and battles;

and if you are very strong indeed, that is a god’s gift’.

On the other hand, Hector is also filled with self-respect that is evident in replying to his wife.

“But I would die of shame to face the men of Troy
And the Trojan women trailing their long robes
If I would shrink from battle now, a coward”

Many more similarities can be traced but the above similarities are eminent.

তাদের দুজনের মধ্যেই গর্ব বিদ্যমান

সাদৃশ্যের দিক থেকে বিবেচনা করলে, তাদের দুজনকেই অহংকার ও গর্বের কাতারে ফেলতে হবে। যখন আগামেমনন আকিলিস এর রক্ষিতাকে ছিনিয়ে নেয় এবং তাকে অপমান করে, তখন সে খুবই অপমানিত বোধ করে এবং যুদ্ধক্ষেত্র ছেড়ে চলে যায় ততক্ষন পর্যন্ত, যতক্ষণ না তার ঘনিষ্ট বন্ধু প্যাট্রোক্লাসকে হেক্টর হত্যা করে।

‘Forever quarreling is dear to your heart, and wars and battles;

and if you are very strong indeed, that is a god’s gift’.

অপরপক্ষে, হেক্টর আত্মসম্মান বোধে অন্ধ ছিল যেটার প্রমান পাওয়া যায় তার স্ত্রীর প্রতি তার প্রতিউত্তরে।

“But I would die of shame to face the men of Troy
And the Trojan women trailing their long robes
If I would shrink from battle now, a coward”

অসংখ্য সাদৃশ্যের মধ্যে এগুলোই প্রধান প্রধান সাদৃশ্য।

Dissimilarities: In term of contrast, they are similar as are huge number of dissimilarities between them.

Noble hearted and lion hearted

Homer relates that Hector is noble hearted man. He stands for the civilized ideas of life. He adheres to the principles and constructive way of life. But on the other hand, Achilles is a lion- hearted man. He is the personification of primitive brutality and anti-social destructiveness.

” ‘If I hold out here and I lay siege to Troy, my journey home is gone but my glory never dies.

If I voyage back to the fatherland I love, my pride, my glory dies…’ “.

By this saying his pride, rage and brutality all are expressed altogether.

বৈসাদৃশ্য: তাদের মধ্যে অসংখ্য বৈসাদৃশ্য রয়েছে।

মহৎ নিষ্ঠূর হৃদয়

হোমার দেখিয়েছেন যে হেক্টর একজন মহৎ হৃদয়ের মানুষ। তিনি জীবনের সভ্য দিক গুলো উপস্থাপন করেন। তিনি মানবজীবনের ইতিবাচক ও গঠনমুলক দিকগুলো মেনে চলেন। অপরপক্ষে আকিলিস নিষ্ঠূর হৃদয়ের লোক। তিনি আদিম বর্বরতা ও সামাজিক অবক্ষয়ের মূর্ত প্রতীক।

” ‘If I hold out here and I lay siege to Troy, my journey home is gone but my glory never dies.

If I voyage back to the fatherland I love, my pride, my glory dies…’ “.

তার এই কথা থেকে তার গর্ব, শৌর্য-বীর্য এবং বর্বরতা সবগুলোই ফুটে উঠে।

Difference in birth

Achilles has a birth of mortal father Peleus, former king of Myrmidons and immortal mother Thetis a sea nymph. Thus, he is half mortal and immortal and he has only weakness that is known as “Achilles Heel”. Hector has a pure mortal birth and prince of Troy.

জন্মগত দিকের ভিন্নতা

মিরমিদনসের রাজা পেলাস (যিনি মানুষ বা মরণশীল) ও সমুদ্রের দেবী থেটিস থেকে আকিলিসের জন্ম। অর্থাৎ আকিলিস হলো অর্ধেক মানুষ ও অর্ধেক দেব বা ডেমিগড এবং তার একমাত্র দুর্বল অংশ হলো “Achilles Heel”. হেক্টর হলো মনুষ্য-জন্মা এবং তিনি ট্রয় এর রাজপুত্র।

Conclusion: After the above discussion, this is really a short description regarding Achilles and Hector. They have many similarities and differences but they cannot be judged by the same standard of morality as they belonged to two different traditions of life. They are out and out great in their respective sphere.

2.Discuss “The Frogs” as a literary criticism or satire.

Introduction: “The Frogs” is a master comedy of having versatile aspects. Literary satire or criticism is one of the important aspects of the play in which Aristophanes (446-386) has shown the appreciation of two great tragedians who are finely fine.

ভূমিকা: “The Frogs” হচ্ছে বহুমুখী দিকগুলির একটি অসাধারণ কমেডি। সাহিত্যিক ব্যঙ্গ বা সমালোচনা নাটকটির অন্যতম গুরুত্বপূর্ণ বিষয় যার মধ্যে অ্যারিস্টোফেনস (৪৬৬-৩৮৬) দুটি অসাধারণ ট্র্যাজেডিয়ানের মূল্যায়ন দেখিয়েছেন যারা নিখুঁতভাবে চমৎকার।

Literary Criticism: Criticism means the expression of disapproval something or someone on the basis of perceived faults and mistakes. Literary criticism or literary satire or literary studies is the study of evaluation and interpretation of literature. In this play, the contest between Euripides and Aeschylus has been in such a perfect label that makes the comedy as literary satire or criticism for the purpose of selecting the talented poet to meet the demand of the time.

সাহিত্য সমালোচনা: সমালোচনা বলতে কিছু বা কাওকে অনুমিত ত্র্রুটি এবং ভুলের ভিত্তিতে অস্বীকৃতি জ্ঞাপন করা।সাহিত্যের সমালোচনা বা সাহিত্যের ব্যঙ্গ বা সাহিত্যের অধ্যয়ন হ’ল সাহিত্যের মূল্যায়ন ও বিশদ ব্যাখ্যা। এই নাটকটিতে ইউরিপিডিস এবং অ্যাসকায়লাসের মধ্যে প্রতিযোগিতাটি এমন নিখুঁত লেবেলে রয়েছে যা কমেডি-টিকে সাহিত্যিক ব্যঙ্গ বা সমালোচনা হিসাবে পরিণত করে  সময়ের চাহিদা মেটাতে মেধাবী কবি নির্বাচন করার উদ্দেশ্যে। 

Preface of the competition

Before starting the competition, Euripides and Aeschylus engage in harsh quarreling and condemning. Euripides condemns Aeschylus in various ways.

“creator of savages, a boorish loudmouth, / with an unbridled, unruly, ungated mouth”

Aeschylus also attacks on Euripides and he says:

Babble collector, / you creator of beggars, you stitcher of old rags”

Thus, pre-contest attacks inform that the contest is going to held in a satirical way.

প্রতিযোগিতার ভূমিকা

প্রতিযোগিতা শুরুর আগে, ইউরিপিডিস এবং অ্যাসকায়লাস  কঠোর ঝগড়া ও নিন্দায় জড়িত। ইউরিপিডিস বিভিন্নভাবে অ্যাসকায়লাসকে নিন্দা করে।

বর্বরতার স্রষ্টা, একজন অভদ্র বাচাল ব্যক্তি/ লাগামহীন, অবাধ্য, অবরুদ্ধ মুখ

অ্যাসকায়লাস ইউরিপিডিসকেও আক্রমণ করে এবং সে বলে:

আবোলতাবোল বলার সংগ্রহকারী, / তুমি অতি দরিদ্রের স্রষ্টা, তুমি পুরানো ছেঁড়া জামাকাপড়ের স্টিচার

এভাবে, প্রাক-প্রতিযোগিতার আক্রমণগুলি জানায় যে প্রতিযোগিতাটি একটি ব্যঙ্গাত্মক উপায়ে অনুষ্ঠিত হতে চলেছে।

Evaluation of general issues

The general evaluation of the contest starts with chorus’s declaration about the sharp arguments between Euripides and Aeschylus. Euripides tries to expose his rival as the charlatan and quack. He also satirizes his obnoxious use of words. Aeschylus in his defense questions Euripides what qualities of a poet should be admired. He responds ‘skill and good counsel’ because they make people better. Then Aeschylus tells him that he has ruined people. Aeschylus defenses objection against his obnoxious use of language in the following manner:

“Great thoughts / and ideas force us to produce

expressions that are equal to them”.

So, evaluation of general issues of the poets’ literary work through contest is a proper token of modern literary criticism.

সাধারণ বিষয়গুলির মূল্যায়ন

প্রতিযোগিতার সাধারণ মূল্যায়ন কোরাসের ঘোষণার সাথে শুরু হয় ইউরিপিডিস এবং অ্যাসকায়লাসের মধ্যে তীব্র যুক্তিগুলি সম্পর্কে। ইউরিপিডিস তার প্রতিদ্বন্দ্বীকে ভণ্ড এবং প্রতারক  হিসাবে প্রকাশ করার চেষ্টা করেন। তিনি তার অশোভন শব্দের ব্যবহারকে ব্যঙ্গ করেন। অ্যাসকায়লাস তাঁর প্রতিরক্ষায় ইউরিপিডিসকে প্রশ্ন করেন কবির কোন গুণাবলীর প্রশংসা করা উচিত। তিনি জবাব দেন “দক্ষতা এবং ভাল পরামর্শ”  কারণ তারা মানুষকে আরও উন্নত করে। তারপরে অ্যাসকায়লাস তাকে বলে যে সে লোকদের ধ্বংস করেছে। অ্যাসকায়লাস  তাঁর আপত্তিকর ভাষা ব্যবহারের বিরুদ্ধে নিম্নলিখিত পদ্ধতিতে বিরোধিতা রক্ষা করেন :

‘‘মহৎ চিন্তা / এবং ধারণাগুলো আমাদের অভিব্যক্তি উত্পাদন করতে বাধ্য করে যে তাদের সমান।’’

সুতরাং, কবিদের সাহিত্যকর্মের সাধারণ বিষয়গুলির মূল্যায়ন প্রতিযোগিতার মাধ্যমে হচ্ছে আধুনিক সাহিত্য সমালোচনার একটি যথাযথ নিদর্শন।

Prologues and lyrical qualities

In the literary competition between Euripides and Aeschylus in the hades, the prologue and lyrical qualities of the poet are mocked in pungent way. Euripides begins through examining one of prologues of Aeschylus –a line from the Oresteia.  He also condemns by saying all of Aeschylus’s lyrics have the same pattern; he cites a few examples from the Myrmidons and Ghost Riders. Such evaluation and criticism are one of the pivotal features of literary satire or criticism.

প্রলোগস এবং লিরিকাল গুণাবলী

পাতালে ইউরিপিডিস এবং অ্যাসকায়লাসের মধ্যে সাহিত্য প্রতিযোগিতায় কবির প্রলোগ এবং লিরিকাল গুণাবলীকে তীব্রভাবে উপহাস করা হয়েছে। ইউরিপিডিস অ্যাসকায়লাসের একটি প্রলোগের পরীক্ষার মাধ্যমে শুরু করে –Oresteia-এর একটি লাইন থেকে। তিনি এই বলেও নিন্দা করেছেন যে অ্যাসকায়লাসের সমস্ত লিরিকে একই প্যাটার্ন রয়েছে; তিনি   Myrmidons এবং Ghost Riders-এর কয়েকটি উদাহরণ উধ্বৃত করেছেন। এ জাতীয় মূল্যায়ন ও সমালোচনা সাহিত্যিক ব্যঙ্গ বা সমালোচনার অন্যতম প্রধান বৈশিষ্ট্য।

Weighing of the Verses

In the weighing of verse, there are a number of series and each time Aeschylus goes lower but in the final weighing he is victorious with lines of,

“Chariot upon chariot, and corpse upon corpse”

He laughs that Euripides could put his whole family and book altogether against him and he would still lose. This stage of competition can be compared with all the literary criticism of modern and post-modern period of English literary.

শ্লোকগুলোর ওজন

শ্লোকের ওজনে, বেশ কয়েকটি সিরিজ রয়েছে এবং প্রতিবার অ্যাসকায়লাস কমে যায় তবে চূড়ান্ত ওজনে তিনি লাইনগুলির সাথে বিজয়ী হন,

রথের উপরে রথ এবং লাশের উপরে লাশ

তিনি হাসেন যে ইউরিপাইডস তার পুরো পরিবার এবং বই পুরোপুরি তার বিরুদ্ধে রাখতে পারে এবং তারপরেও সে হারাতে পারে। এই প্রতিযোগিতার পর্যায়টি ইংরেজি সাহিত্যের আধুনিক ও উত্তর-আধুনিক সময়ের সমস্ত সাহিত্য সমালোচনার সাথে তুলনা করা যেতে পারে।

Appreciation of the political sagacity of the poets

Dionysus is really helpless and confused to select one bringing back to human society for the protection of Athens. But the time comes to him since Euripides fails to be perfect regarding political urgency and Aeschylus wins because he shows suffice wisdom and intelligence to protect the demos of Athens. By the final stage of the contest, it is proved that Aeschylus is chosen as he has proper interpretation of life. Finally, Dionysus changes his previous longing and proclaims that he is choosing Aeschylus as the chorus says while his journey to hades.

“Grant fine idea that will bring fine blessings”

কবিদের রাজনৈতিক জাগরণের প্রশংসা

অ্যাথেন্সের সুরক্ষার জন্য একজনকে মানব সমাজে ফিরিয়ে আনার জন্য ডায়নিসাস সত্যিই অসহায় এবং বিভ্রান্ত। তবে সময় এসেছে তার থেকে যেহেতু ইউরিপিডিস রাজনৈতিক জরুরী বিষয়ে নিখুঁত হতে ব্যর্থ হয়েছে এবং অ্যাসকায়লাস জিতলেন কারণ তিনি এথেন্সের গণতন্ত্র রক্ষা করার জন্য যথেষ্ট জ্ঞান এবং বুদ্ধি দেখান। প্রতিযোগিতার চূড়ান্ত পর্যায়ে, প্রমাণিত হয়েছে যে জীবনের যথাযথ ব্যাখ্যা আছে বলেই এচচ্লিসকে বেছে নেওয়া হয়েছিল। অবশেষে, ডায়োনিসাস তার পূর্বের আকাঙ্ক্ষা পরিবর্তন করে এবং ঘোষণা করেন যে তিনি এস্কিলাসকে বেছে নিচ্ছেন যেহেতু কোরাস তার পাতালে ভ্রমণ করার সময় বলেছে।

উত্তম ধারণা প্রদান করুন যা উত্তম আশীর্বাদ নিয়ে আসবে

Conclusion: In termination, we can say that “The Frogs” is not only a play of literary criticism or satire but also a guideline for the critics in question of how to write literary criticism or satire.

4.Write on Homer as a realist with reference to his epic poem “The Iliad”.

Introduction: “The Iliad” is an epic poem by Homer that touches on the lives of the everyday people of Ancient Greece, particularly the soldiers as well as the lives of the gods and goddesses in which they believed. Some critics claim that the prime or crowning achievement of Homer in this work is his sense of realism in the characters and plot. Homer presents human nature and the real world in such a way that people of all ages and societies are existed.

ভূমিকাঃThe Iliad” হচ্ছে হোমার রচিত বিখ্যাত মহাকাব্য যা প্রাচীন গ্রিসের মানুষের দৈনন্দিন জীবন সম্পর্কে আলোকপাত করেছে, বিশেষ করে যোদ্ধাদের জীবন নিয়ে এবং তারা যে সমস্ত দেবদেবীদের বিশ্বাস করতো তাদের সম্পর্কে আলোকপাত করেছে। কোনো কোনো সমালোচক দাবি করেছেন যে এই মহাকাব্যে হোমারের শ্রেষ্ঠ অর্জন হচ্ছে তার চরিত্র ও ঘটনা প্রবাহের বাস্তবিকতা। হোমার বিশ্বকে এবং মানুষের দৃষ্টিভঙ্গিকে এমন ভাবে বর্ণনা করেছেন যে সমস্ত যুগের সমাজ এবং মানুষ এতে বিদ্যমান।

The key concept of realism

Literary realism, as defined by the Literary Encyclopedia is “a genre of fiction in which there is a detailed presentation of appearances, especially of the familiar details of every life.” According to this definition, Homer is a realist and seems to belong all society and culture.

Literary Encyclopedia এর মতে Literary Realism বা সাহিত্যিক বাস্তবতা হচ্ছে “গল্প রচনার এমন এক ধরণ যেখানে মানুষের দৈনন্দিন জীবন ব্যবস্থার বিস্তারিত বর্ণনা রয়েছে” । এই সংজ্ঞা অনুযায়ী, হোমার হচ্ছেন একজন রিয়ালিস্ট যিনি সকল সমাজ ও সংস্কৃতিতে বিদ্যমান।

Realistic aspects of Homer

Although many of the characters in “The Iliad” are not realistic at all, many of the scenes and circumstances are very true to life. An apt account about Homer’s realism is here.

হোমারের বাস্তবিক দিকগুলো

যদিও “The Iliad” এর অনেক চরিত্রই একেবারেই অবাস্তব, এদের মধ্যে অনেক ঘটনা বা দৃশ্যই বেশ বাস্তবিক। হোমারের বাস্তবিক বর্ণনার একটি উপযুক্ত চিত্র তুলে ধরা হলো।

The harsh reality of the war

Homer is unique since the detailed descriptions of the battles throughout the epic are very accurate to real life. These scenes are very realistic because they are mostly unbiased and show the casualties and victories of both sides. In book four, there are detailed descriptions of many individual conflicts of the battle but the book ends with:

“On that day many of the Trojans and Achaeans

lay side by side, faced down in the dust”

By detailing these individual riots or skirmishes, Homer shows that all the soldiers regardless of which army they fight for are men with families and each life lost is as precious as every other. This is the harsh reality of war that provided the massage thousand years ago that war is not prolific but a matter of destruction.

যুদ্ধের মর্মান্তিক বাস্তবতা

হোমার অদ্বিতীয় কারণ তার মহাকাব্য জুড়ে যুদ্ধ-সংঘাতের বিস্তারিত বর্ণনা খুবই বাস্তবিক। এই মহাকাব্যের দৃশ্যগুলি অত্যন্ত বাস্তবিক কারণ এগুলি বেশিরভাগই পক্ষপাতহীন এবং উভয় পক্ষের ক্ষয়ক্ষতি ও বিজয়গুলি দেখায়। চতুর্থ বইয়ে, যুদ্ধের বেশ কিছু ব্যক্তিগত দ্বন্দ্বের বিস্তারিত বর্ণনা রয়েছে, তবে বইটি শেষ হয়:

ঐ দিন বহু Trojan Achaean দের নিথর দেহ

পাশাপাশি পরে ছিল, ধুলোয় লুটিয়ে ছিল।”

এই ব্যাক্তিগত দ্বন্দ্বগুলো বিস্তারিত বর্ণনা করে হোমার বুঝিয়েছেন যে, সকল যোদ্ধাই, চাই সে যেই দলেরই হোক, প্রত্যেকে মানুষ যাদের পরিবার-পরিজন রয়েছে, তাদের হারানো জীবন অন্যদের জীবনের মতোই মূল্যবান। এটিই যুদ্ধের মর্মান্তিক বাস্তবতা যা হাজার হাজার বছর আগে এই বার্তা পাঠিয়েছিল যে যুদ্ধ লাভজনক কিছু নয়, বরং ধ্বংসাত্মক।

Very realistic human nature

There is an enormous understanding and compassion in “The Iliad” that means a very realistic view of human nature. Homer sees human beings as they are such as flawed and driven by feelings and emotions. Even the great Achaean warrior Achilles is not only wrathful but also passionate and revenged for his self-esteem and intimate companion’s death. His wrath and emotional love for his intimate friend Patroclus are blazoned while talking to his goddess mother Thetis. His pride is displayed by rejecting Agamemnon’s offer and he assets.

“My journey home is gone,

but my glory never dies.

If I voyage back to the fatherland I love,

My pride, my glory dies…………………….”

খুবই বাস্তবিক মানুষের প্রকৃতি

ইলিয়াড” এর মধ্যে একটি বিশাল বোঝাপড়া এবং মমত্ববোধ রয়েছে যার অর্থ মানব প্রকৃতির বাস্তব দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি। হোমার মানবজাতিকে এভাবে দেখেছেন যে তারা দোষত্রূটি যুক্ত এবং অনুভূতি ও আবেগ দ্বারা তাড়িত। এমনকি বিখ্যাত Achaean যোদ্ধা Achilles ও এতো বেশি রাগী ও আবেগ-তাড়িত যে সে তার নিজ স্বার্থ ও ঘনিষ্ট সহযোদ্ধার হত্যার জন্য প্রতিশোধ নেয়। যখন সে তার দেবী মা থেটিসের সাথে কথা বলে তখন তার ঘনিষ্ট বন্ধু প্যাট্রোক্লাস এর জন্য তার আবেগ আপ্লুত ভালোবাসা ও রাগ প্রকাশ পায় । আকিলিস এর গর্ব প্রকাশ পায় যখন সে আগামেমনন এর অফার প্রত্যাখ্যান করে এবং বলে :

“My journey home is gone,

but my glory never dies.

If I voyage back to the fatherland I love,

My pride, my glory dies…………………….”

Portrayal of characters

Homer has shown his realism by portraying the characters of his epic. All walk of people of human society are existed in the characters who are heroes like Achilles and Hector, housewives like Andromache, deceitful wives like Helen, timid lovers like Paris, intimate friends like Patroclus, thoughtful wise leaders like Odysseus, commander like Agamemnon, passionate and affectionate parents like Priam, and so on. Priam’s fatherly role is displayed in the middle of book 24 and he says before Achilles to mitigate his wrath, Achilles’ anger:

“Remember your own father, great godlike Achilles-

As old as I am,

To see his beloved son come sailing from Troy”

By such emotional speech, Priam begs mercy from Achilles and gets back Hector’s dead body to Troy for ritual funeral. So, Homer’s realism is out and out beyond suspicion.

চরিত্রগুলো অঙ্কন

হমার তার মহাকাব্যে চরিত্রগুলোর বাস্তবধর্মী অঙ্কন করেছেন। এই মহাকাব্যে সমাজের সকল শ্রেণীর মানুষ বিদ্যমান যেমন আকিলিস ও হেক্টরের মতো যোদ্ধা, এন্ড্রোমাচি এর মতো গৃহধর্মিনী, হেলেন এর মতো চরিত্রহীন নারী, প্যারিস এর মতো ধূর্ত প্রেমিক, প্যাট্রোক্লাস এর মতো ঘনিষ্ট বন্ধু, ওডিসায়াস এর মতো প্রজ্ঞাবান নেতা, আগামেমনন এর মতো কমান্ডার, প্রিয়াম এর মতো আবেগী পিতা এবং আরো অনেকে। পিতা হিসেবে প্রিয়ামকে দেখানো হয়েছে ২৪ তম বইয়ে, যখন তিনি আকিলিসকে রাগ কমানোর আহ্বান করেছেন।

তোমার পিতাকে স্মরণ করো, ঈশ্বরিক যোদ্ধা আকিলিস

তিনি আমার মতোই বৃদ্ধ,

তিনি কেমন বোধ করবেন যখন তার প্রিয় পুত্র ট্রয় থেকে ফিরবে

এরকম আবেগী বক্তব্য দিয়ে প্রিয়াম তার মৃত পুত্র হেক্টরের লাস ট্রয়ে ফিরিয়ে নেওয়ার জন্য আকিলিস এর দয়া প্রার্থনা করে। সুতরাং হোমারের বাস্তবিকতা সুস্পষ্ট।

Other miscellaneous realistic point of views

As it is known to all that united, we stand and separated we fall. This realistic maxim has been first presented by Homer because all the city states of Greece were united to preserve their prestige and glory and on the other hand the friendly states of Troy became united. Such coalition of the states is the picture of world wars of this real world.

However, in this poem the poet introduces supernatural activities of Olympian Gods and Goddesses in a realistic manner. Their emotions like anger, jealousy etc. represent human emotions.

“We everlasting gods . . . Ah what chilling blows
we suffer—thanks to our own conflicting wills— 
whenever we show these mortal men some kindness”

Besides, the crucial realistic point of view of the poem is that illicit love affair is always a matter of all kind of destructions which we at first find in Homer’s “Iliad”.

অন্যান্য বহুমুখী বাস্তবিক দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি

এটি সকলেই জানে যে একতাই বল। এই বাস্তবধর্মী উক্তি হোমার ই প্রথম উপস্থাপন করেছেন, কারণ গ্রিসের সমস্ত নগরী একত্র হয়েছিল তাদের সম্মান ও গৌরব রক্ষার্থে। অপরপক্ষে বন্ধুত্বসুলভ ট্রয় ও একত্র হয়েছিল। নগরগুলোর এরকম ঐক্যজোট বিশ্বযুদ্ধের বাস্তবিক চিত্র।

যাইহোক, এই মহাকাব্যে হোমার অলিম্পিয়ান দেবদেবীদের অতিপ্রাকৃতিক শক্তি বেশ বাস্তবিকভাবে তুলে ধরেছেন। তাদের রাগ এবং আবেগ মানুষের আবেগ ও রাগের প্রতিফলক।

“We everlasting gods . . . Ah what chilling blows
we suffer—thanks to our own conflicting wills— 
whenever we show these mortal men some kindness”

এছাড়াও এই মহাকাব্যের আরেকটি বাস্তবিক শিক্ষা হলো অবৈধ প্রেম সকল যুদ্ধ-বিবাদের মূল, যেটি আমরা ইলিয়াডেই প্রথম দেখতে পাই।

Conclusion: In few words, Homer teaches human beings psychologically by illustrating realism prevailed in human society forever.

5. Discuss “Phaedra” as a tragedy of unrequited love.

Or, Is Seneca’s tragedy “Phaedra” a tragedy of passions? If so why?

Or, does Phaedra fulfil the Aristotelian concept of tragedy?

Introduction: Once upon a time, the mythical stories were the soul of Greek and Roman literature. The myth of Phaedra influences the most famous Roman playwright Seneca (4 BC-AD 65) to write a tragedy. Seneca writes the tragedy entitled “Phaedra” showing that irrelevant passionate love is nothing but merely a source of destruction.

ভূমিকা: এককালে পৌরাণিক গল্পগুলি ছিল গ্রীক এবং রোমান সাহিত্যের প্রাণ। ফেদরার রূপকথার গল্পটি বিখ্যাত রোমান নাট্যকার সেনেকাকে প্রভাবিত করে ট্র্যাজেডি লেখার জন্য। সেনেকা ফেইদরা” শিরোনামে ট্র্যাজেডি লিখে এটা দেখিয়ে যে অপ্রাসঙ্গিক কামুক বা আবেগী প্রেম কেবল ধ্বংসের উত্স ছাড়া কিছু নয়।

Pre-talking to understand the term “unrequited love”

The love that is not normal is called exceptional and unrequited love. Seneca in his tragedy has shown that love is fundamental but the illicit and wrong desirable love cannot be accepted. The love that has been shown in the tragedy is a completely crazy one because a step-mother loves her step-son to fulfill her sexual and sensational pleasure in the absence of her husband. Even primitive societies cannot agree on this love. But Seneca has tried to expose that long absence of husband creates a wild desire within wife so that she is even ready to do the most hateful task.

অনর্থিত ভালবাসাশব্দটি বোঝার জন্য প্রাককথা

যে ভালবাসা স্বাভাবিক নয় তাকে ব্যতিক্রমী এবং অপ্রোয়জনীয় ভালবাসা বলা হয়। সেনেকা তাঁর ট্র্যাজেডিতে দেখিয়েছেন যে প্রেম মৌলিক তবে অবৈধ এবং ভুল পছন্দসই প্রেম মেনে নেওয়া যায় না। ট্র্যাজেডিতে যে ভালবাসা দেখানো হয়েছে তা সম্পূর্ণ উন্মাদ কারণ এক সৎ মা তার স্বামীর অনুপস্থিতিতে তার যৌন এবং চাঞ্চল্যকর আনন্দ পূরণ করতে তার সৎ পুত্রকে ভালবাসে। এমনকি আদিম সমাজগুলিও এই ভালবাসায় একমত হতে পারে না। তবে সেনেকা প্রকাশ করার চেষ্টা করেছেন যে স্বামীর দীর্ঘ অনুপস্থিতি স্ত্রীর মধ্যে এক বুনো আকাঙ্ক্ষা তৈরি করে যাতে সে সবচেয়ে ঘৃণ্য কাজটি করার জন্যও প্রস্তুত থাকে।

Tragic art of characterization

Art of characterization is one of the fundamental aspects of the tragedy. According to Aristotle, a tragic character must have royal blood. As we know that Phaedra who was the queen of Athens and Hippolytus was the prince of Athens, Seneca’s art of characterization meets the demand of tragical art of characterization. But the matter of sorrow is that the tragic characters of this play become the victim of an irrelevant love affair. Both of them die at the end of the play. Phaedra hangs herself and Hippolytus is killed by Neptune because of the request of his father Theseus to Neptune.

চরিত্রগতকরণের ট্র্যাজিক আর্ট

চরিত্রায়ন হলো ট্র্যাজেডির অন্যতম মৌলিক বিষয়। অ্যারিস্টটলের মতে, একটি মর্মান্তিক চরিত্রের অবশ্যই রাজকীয় জন্ম থাকতে হবে। যেমনটি আমরা জানি যে ফেইড্রা যিনি অ্যাথেন্স এর রানী ছিলেন এবং হিপ্পলিটাস ছিলেন অ্যাথেন্সের রাজপুত্র, সেনেকার চরিত্রায়নের শিল্পটি ট্র্যাজিকাল আর্টের চাহিদা পূরণ করে। তবে দুঃখের বিষয় হ’ল এই নাটকের করুণ চরিত্রগুলি অপ্রাসঙ্গিক প্রেমের সম্পর্কের শিকার হয়। নাটকের শেষে দু’জনেই মারা যান। ফ্যাডেরা গলায় ফাঁস দিয়ে আত্ম হত্যা এবং নেপচুনের কাছে তার বাবা থিসাসের অনুরোধের কারণে হিপ্পলিটাস নেপচুনের হাতে মারা যাই।

Struggle between passion and loyalty

Most of Seneca’s characters are taken from Greek legends and myths. Phaedra who was the wife of the king of Athens Theseus becomes devastatingly tragic because of her conflict between passion and loyalty. On the one hand, she could not tolerate the long absence of her husband and becomes fascinated and passionate for her step-son Hippolytus to fulfill her carnal desire. On the other hand, she also feels pain in her heart regarding her loyalty to her husband. Thus, Hippolytus and she become the victim of unrequited passionate love.

আবেগ এবং আনুগত্য মধ্যে সংগ্রাম

সেনেকার বেশিরভাগ চরিত্র গ্রীক কিংবদন্তী ও পৌরাণিক কাহিনী থেকে নেওয়া হয়েছে। আধ্যাত্মিক আনুগত্য ও আনুগত্যের মধ্যে দ্বন্দ্বের কারণে এথেন্সের রাজা থেয়াসের স্ত্রী ফেইদ্রা বিধ্বংসীভাবে করুণ হয়ে ওঠেন। একদিকে, তিনি তার স্বামীর দীর্ঘ অনুপস্থিতি সহ্য করতে না পেরে এবং তার শারীরিক আকাঙ্ক্ষা পূরণের জন্য তার সৎ পুত্র হিপপলিটাসের প্রতি মুগ্ধ এবং উত্সাহী হয়ে ওঠেন। অন্যদিকে, স্বামীর প্রতি তার আনুগত্য সম্পর্কে তিনি হৃদয়েও বেদনা অনুভব করেন। সুতরাং, হিপপলিটাস এবং তিনি অনির্বাচিত উত্সাহী প্রেমের শিকার হন।

Morality vs passion

Seneca has shown through the character of the Nurse that “Phaedra” is a tragedy of unrequited love. The Nurse is a good adviser who possesses eloquence. The playwright introduces this character in the very first Act of the play. When Phaedra expresses her dissatisfaction with the long absence of her husband and her secret love for her step-son Hippolytus, the Nurse tries to give her good advice. She tells her mistress to put out the fire of passion and give no support to evil hopes. she strongly says Phaedra to be a moralist and says:

“To choose the good is the first rule of life,

And not falter on the way, nest best

Is to have shame and know where sin must stop.”

Phaedra replies that what the Nurse has said is true but Cupid is in control of her heart. Then the Nurse proves that Phaedra is a woman with modern sensibility. She comments:

“…………………………..vain fancies

Conceived by crazy minds, they are all false!”

সুন্দরভাবে কথা বলার ক্ষমতা

নার্স একজন ভাল পরামর্শদাতা যিনি স্পষ্ট ভাষায় বক্তব্য রাখেন। নাট্যকার এই নাটকের প্রথম প্রথম আইনে এই চরিত্রটির পরিচয় দিয়েছিলেন। যখন ফেইড্রা তার স্বামীর দীর্ঘ অনুপস্থিতি এবং তার সৎ পুত্র হিপপলিটাসের প্রতি তার গোপন প্রেমের বিষয়ে অসন্তুষ্টি প্রকাশ করেছেন, তখন নার্স তাকে ভাল পরামর্শ দেওয়ার চেষ্টা করেন। তিনি তার উপপত্নীকে আবেগের আগুন জ্বলতে এবং মন্দ আশাকে কোনও সমর্থন না করার জন্য বলেন। তিনি strongly ফেদরাকে নৈতিকতাবাদী হতে বলেছেন এবং বলেছেন:

“ভালটি বেছে নেওয়াটাই জীবনের প্রথম নিয়ম,

এবং পথে বাধা না, সেরা নীড়

লজ্জা পেতে এবং পাপ কোথায় থামতে হবে তা জানতে হবে “

ফেইদ্রা জবাব দেয় যে নার্স যা বলেছে তা সত্য তবে কামিড তার হৃদয়ের নিয়ন্ত্রণে আছেন। তারপরে নার্স প্রমাণ করেছেন যে ফাড্রা আধুনিক সংবেদনশীলতা সহ এক মহিলা। তিনি মন্তব্য করেছেন:

“………………………….. নিরর্থক কল্পিত

পাগল মন দ্বারা কল্পনা, তারা সব মিথ্যা! “

The purpose of tragedy

It is needed to remember that according to Aristotle, in a tragedy common better type of character is represented to bring pity and fear within the audience but the audience will not be able to blame the tragic character whatever is shown in the tragedy. Seneca’s tragedy “Phaedra” that is based on unrequited love and revenge brings pity and fear within the audience because nothing can be mor horrifying than the climax of the tragedy because of the merciless destruction of Hippolytus.

Conclusion: In summing up, we can assert that even a pure fact like love can be very destructive if it loses its path. Seneca has scattered the message the message that illicit love is the store house of vengeance. So, Phaedra’s one sighted illicit passionate love is really unrequited.

6.The subject of the Iliad is the wrath of Achilles- elaborate.

Introduction: Homer’s Iliad deals with the events of the Trojan War, which took place in the last few months during the tenth year of that war. Although the epic clearly describes the ongoing battle between the Achaeans (Greeks) and the Trojans, it focuses on a central theme of the whole story that is Achilles’ wrath that is why it is called that the subject-matter of this great epic is Achilles’ rage.

ভূমিকা: হোমার এর ইলিয়াড ট্রোজান যুদ্ধের ঘটনাগুলির সাথে সম্পর্কিত, যা যুদ্ধের দশম বছরের সময় কয়েক মাসে ঘটেছিল। যদিও মহাকাব্যটি আখিয়ানদের (গ্রীক) এবং ট্রোজানদের মধ্যে চলমান যুদ্ধের স্পষ্ট বর্ণনা দিয়েছে, তবে এটি পুরো গল্পের কেন্দ্রীয় থিমের উপরে মনোনিবেশ করে যা অ্যাচিলিসের ক্রোধ, এ কারণেই বলা হয় যে এই মহাকাব্যটির বিষয়বস্তু হ’ল অ্যাচিলিস ‘ক্রোধ।

The seeds of the epic

Achilles’ anger initiates the epic. Apollo, the son of Zeus, was highly displeased with Agamemnon because he kept the daughter of the priest of Apollo as a concubine. Being furious, Apollo sent a plague in the Greek regiment and the Greek soldiers were dying in large numbers. Achilles took steps and found out the cause of Apollo’s anger with the help of Calchas. The soothsayer who revealed that Agamemnon had dishonored the priest of Apollo by not ransoming his daughter Chrysies from him. Agamemnon agreed to return Chrysies on condition that Achilles’ mistress Briseis must be given to Agamemnon. This infuriates Achilles and the story of the epic gets started with Achilles’ rage.

মহাকাব্যের বীজ

অ্যাকিলিসের ক্রোধ মহাকাব্য শুরু করে। জিউসের পুত্র অ্যাপোলো আগামেমননের উপর অত্যন্ত অসন্তুষ্ট ছিলেন কারণ তিনি আপোলের পুরোহিতের মেয়েকে উপপত্নী হিসাবে রেখেছিলেন। ক্রুদ্ধ হয়ে অ্যাপোলো গ্রীক রেজিমেন্টে একটি প্লেগ পাঠিয়েছিলেন এবং গ্রীক সৈন্যরা প্রচুর সংখ্যায় মারা যাচ্ছিল। অ্যাকিলিস পদক্ষেপ নিয়েছিল এবং কলচাসের সহায়তায় অ্যাপোলো রাগের কারণ খুঁজে পেল। যে সূথ্যসায়ার প্রকাশ করেছিলেন যে আগামেমনন তার কন্যা ক্রিসিকে তার কাছ থেকে মুক্তি না দিয়ে অ্যাপোলো পুরোহিতকে অসম্মান করেছিলেন। অ্যাগামেমন ক্রিসিসকে এই শর্তে ফিরিয়ে দিতে সম্মত হয়েছিল যে অ্যাচিলিসের উপপত্নী ব্রিসেইসকে অবশ্যই আগামেমননকে দেওয়া উচিত। এটি অ্যাকিলিসকে উত্সাহিত করে এবং মহাকাব্যের গল্পটি শুরু হয়েছিল অ্যাকিলিসের ক্রোধের সাথে।

The prophetic power of heroism within anger

Achilles brooded over his grief for being insulted by Agamemnon. He went to kill Agamemnon by plunging his sword through Agamemnon’s heart. Agamemnon, however, was protected by the invisible intervention of the goddess Athene. Achilles was violent, and he furiously said to Agamemnon:

“You drunkard butchered man, you have not the courage to fight. Here is my solemn oath. A time shall come when Achilles will be missed by the nation. Many will fall and die before bloodthirsty Hector. Then you will realize that you have not respected the best man of all.”

রাগের মধ্যে বীরত্বের ভবিষ্যদ্বাণীমূলক শক্তি

অ্যাগামেমননের দ্বারা অপমানিত হওয়ায় তার দুঃখের বিষয়ে অ্যাকিলিস হতাশ হয়ে পড়েছিল। তিনি আগামেমননের হৃদয়ে তরোয়াল ডুবিয়ে আগামেমননকে হত্যা করতে গিয়েছিলেন। অগামেমনন অবশ্য দেবী এথেনের অদৃশ্য হস্তক্ষেপ দ্বারা সুরক্ষিত ছিল। অ্যাকিলিস হিংসাত্মক ছিল এবং তিনি আগাগেমননকে তীব্রভাবে বলেছিলেন:

তুমি মাতাল মানুষ, তুমি লড়াই করার সাহস রাখো না। এখানে আমার একান্ত শপথ। এই সময়টি আসবে যখন অ্যাকিলিসকে জাতি মিস করবে। অনেকে রক্তপাতে হেক্টরের সামনে পড়ে মারা যাবে। তখন আপনি বুঝতে পারবেন যে আপনি সবার সেরা মানুষটিকে শ্রদ্ধা করেননি।

The collapse of the Achaeans

The whole poem is divided into twenty-four books. In the first book, Achilles withdraws from the war because of his quarrel with Agamemnon. The first ten texts describe how helpless and weak the Greek soldiers were without Achilles and how they were defeated. Then comes the turning point when Achilles’ friend Patroclus is killed. Thus, it is realizable that Achilles’ rage turns into a pivotal fact for the ongoing story of this great epic.

আছিয়ানের পতন

পুরো কবিতাটি চব্বিশটি বইয়ে বিভক্ত। প্রথম বইয়ে, অ্যাকিলিস আগামেমননের সাথে তাঁর ঝগড়ার কারণে যুদ্ধ থেকে সরে এসেছিলেন। প্রথম দশটি গ্রন্থ বর্ণনা করেছে যে গ্রীক সৈন্যরা অচিলিস ব্যতীত কতটা অসহায় ও দুর্বল ছিল এবং কীভাবে তারা পরাজিত হয়েছিল। তারপরে আসে টার্নিং পয়েন্ট যখন অ্যাকিলিসের বন্ধু প্যাট্রোক্লাস মারা যায়। সুতরাং, এটি উপলব্ধিযোগ্য যে অ্যাকিলিসের ক্রোধ এই মহান মহাকাব্যটির চলমান গল্পের জন্য একটি মূল সত্যে পরিণত হয়েছিল।

Trying to reconcile

Book nine describes Agamemnon’s effort of appeasing Achilles’ anger that goes in vain. Achilles is not a common hero. No hero in The Iliad can be parallel to him. Achilles’ father is Peleus, a mortal, while his mother is a goddess (the sea nymph Thetis). Achilles’ armor was made by Hephaestus. Thus he enjoys an extra advantage. He is the best fighter and an inevitable force on the Greek side. His inaction or the withdrawal from the fighting is crucial to the plot.

Transferring anger

At one point in the war (Book 15), the Trojans arrived on Greek ships and the Greeks were in serious trouble. This brings about a turning point. The death of his dear friend Patroclus at the hands of Hector infuriates Achilles. His anger shifted from Agamemnon to Hector. He decided to take revenge on Patroclus’ death anyway. Thus the subject of The Iliad revolves around Achilles’ anger.

রাগ স্থানান্তর করা

যুদ্ধের এক পর্যায়ে (বই 15), ট্রোজানরা গ্রীক জাহাজে পৌঁছেছিল এবং গ্রীকরা মারাত্মক সমস্যায় পড়েছিল। এটি একটি টার্নিং পয়েন্ট নিয়ে আসে। হেক্টরের হাতে তার প্রিয় বন্ধু প্যাট্রোক্লাসের মৃত্যু অ্যাকিলিসকে উত্সাহ দেয়। তাঁর ক্রোধ আগামেমনন থেকে হেক্টরে স্থানান্তরিত হয়। তিনি যেভাবেই হোক প্যাট্রোক্লাসের মৃত্যুর প্রতিশোধ নেওয়ার সিদ্ধান্ত নিয়েছিলেন। এভাবে দ্য ইলিয়াডের বিষয়টি আচিলিসের ক্রোধের চারদিকে ঘোরে।

The paradigm of brutality and foolishness

Achilles, being trapped by emotion and anger, shows untold brutal heroism and foolishness. His wrath now turns to Hector and his only obsession is to take revenge. He declares emotionally and morally:

“Now I shall go to overtake that killer of a dear life, Hector. Then I will accept my own death.”

As a result, he fights blindly and bravely which is why the river gets filled up with blood and dead bodies of the Trojans. He then seeks and finds an opportunity to kill Hector, the Trojan warrior, who is responsible for his friend’s death. Achilles’ wrath is not appeased until killing Hector. Finally, he kills Hector revengefully and drags Hector’s dead body around the walls of Troy for twelve days. And he consequently invites his own death. Paris throws an arrow on Achilles’ heel and Achilles dies after keeping his promise.

নির্মমতা বোকামির দৃষ্টান্ত

আছিলিস, আবেগ এবং ক্রোধের জালে আটকা পড়ে অযাচিত নিষ্ঠুর বীরত্ব এবং বোকামি দেখায়। তার ক্রোধ এখন হেক্টরের দিকে ফিরেছে এবং তার একমাত্র আবেশ হ’ল প্রতিশোধ নেওয়া। তিনি আবেগগত এবং নৈতিকভাবে ঘোষণা করেন:

এখন আমি প্রিয় জীবনের সেই ঘাতক, হেক্টরকে পরাস্ত করতে যাব my তবে আমি নিজের মৃত্যু মেনে নেব” “

ফলস্বরূপ, তিনি অন্ধ ও সাহসের সাথে লড়াই করেন যার কারণে নদীটি ট্রোজানদের রক্ত এবং মৃতদেহে পূর্ণ হয়ে যায়। তারপরে তিনি ট্রোজান যোদ্ধা হেক্টরকে হত্যা করার একটি সুযোগ সন্ধান করেন এবং যিনি তার বন্ধুর মৃত্যুর জন্য দায়ী। হ্যাক্টরকে হত্যা না করা পর্যন্ত অ্যাকিলিসের ক্রোধ প্রশমিত হয় না। অবশেষে, তিনি হেক্টরকে প্রতিহিংসাপরায়ণভাবে হত্যা করেন এবং হেক্টরের মৃত দেহটি ট্রয়ের দেওয়ালের চারদিকে টেনে আনেন বারো দিন। এবং ফলস্বরূপ তিনি তার নিজের মৃত্যুর জন্য আমন্ত্রণ জানান। প্যারিস অ্যাকিলিসের গোড়ালিটিতে একটি তীর নিক্ষেপ করেছিল এবং তার প্রতিশ্রুতি পালন করে অ্যাকিলিস মারা যায়।

Conclusion: The construction of the entire poem, thus, centers on the anger of Achilles. His wrath is developed in two major cycles. The first cycle begins in Book I while in Books VII and VIII, the hero is not seen, but his absence from the battlefield can be felt leading to dire consequences. The second cycle begins with the death of Patroclus when Achilles’ anger towards Agamemnon was replaced with equally excessive grief and wrath against Hector. So, it can rationally be commented that “The subject-matter of The Iliad is the wrath of Achilles”.

7.Sketch the character of Clytemnestra.

Introduction: As a dramatist, Aeschylus’s greatness lies in creating life-like characters. Clytemnestra is one of them. She was a beautiful portrayal of woman gaining the characteristic features of a dynamic male figure. Her character is different from the other heroine of Greek tragedy. Her character is illustrated below with the reference of Aeschylus’ tragedy “Agamemnon.”

Royal birth

Clytemnestra was the daughter of Leda and Tyndoreos, the king of Sparta. By birth she was a royal birth. she was the wife of Agamemnon who was the king of Argos. From this perspective we can say that Clytemnestra was a royal birth woman.

Representative of heroic power of the age

In the classical Greek Tragedy, “Agamemnon” is about the assassination of Agamemnon by her own wife. Here, we see that after a long war of Troy that lasted nearly 10 years, Agamemnon returned to his own kingdom.  In his long absence, Clytemnestra was ruled the kingdom. As a woman she had been ruled the entire kingdom it was a sign of Clytemnestra’s heroic power. In Aeschylus’s tragedy Agamemnon the character of Clytemnestra is portrayed as strong-willed woman. She was the representative of woman power of the age. Critics have often compared Clytemnestra with lady Macbeth. But this comparison is not apt to Clytemnestra had no lament what she had done. 

Woman of action

Clytemnestra was extremely tongue-tied woman. In the tragedy we never see that Clytemnestra does not disclose her plan to Aegisthus. She was for all practical purposes, self- sufficient. For ten years she managed the affairs of the state of during her husband’s absence. She managed the state well even the chorus could not comment upon her administration. So, it is proved that Clytemnestra was a woman in action.

Suspicious mind

The tragedy “Agamemnon” we have noticed Clytemnestra’s suspicious mind. She was very cunning woman. She does not discuss about her plan even her lover is not known much about her plan. Only audience know about her plan to murder of Agamemnon. Her words are plain, but her meaning was hidden all those who around of her.

Suspense relation with Aegisthus

Aegisthus was the cousin brother of Agamemnon and son of Thyestes who has made curse on Atreus’s generation. Clytemnestra had maintained a secret relation with Aegisthus. A long absence of her husband, she fallen in love with Aegisthus, but this matter of illegal relation is remained secret before the death of Agamemnon. After the death of Agamemnon, Clytemnestra was declared in front of the people of her kingdom that Agamemnon died.  And she would rule the kingdom with Aegisthus.

Excellence in art of wickedness

Clytemnestra represents the best kind of excellence in the art of wickedness. She is one of the greatest artful pretenders of the human history of oratory. She appears as the most artful in her speech and gestures. She was a wonderful lady, a master- mind, a terrible conspirator, a crafty pretender and high skillful in designing her speech. 

Conclusion:  In fine we can terminate that Clytemnestra was a single-handed plot maker of the murderer of Agamemnon and the Troy princess Cassandra. Clytemnestra is probably the most fully drawn among the characters in Oresteia Trilogy. She was the best heroine of her heroic mode.

8.Discuss Medea as a tragic heroine.

Introduction: According to the Aristotelian definition of a tragic hero or heroine, is a person who is aroused pity and fear in the mind of the audience because of his error in judgement”Medea is one of the famous classical tragedies in the history of Greek Tragedy composed by Greek Tragedian Euripides. Medea is the heroine of the classical tragedy “Medea” the tragedy is based on the myth of Medea and Jason.

ভূমিকা:  অ্যারিস্টটালিয়ান সংজ্ঞা অনুসারে, একজন ট্র্যাজিক নায়ক বা নায়িকার এমন একজন ব্যক্তি যা বিচারের ক্ষেত্রে তার ভুলের কারণে শ্রোতাদের মনে করুণা ও ভয় জাগিয়ে তোলে “গ্রীক ট্র্যাজেডির ইতিহাসে মেডিয়া অন্যতম বিখ্যাত শাস্ত্রীয় ট্র্যাজেডি গ্রীক ট্র্যাজেডিয়ান ইউরিপাইডস দ্বারা রচিত। মেডিয়া ক্লাসিকাল ট্র্যাজেডির নায়িকা হলেন “মেডিয়া” ট্র্যাজেডি মেডিয়া এবং জেসনের মিথের ভিত্তিতে নির্মিত।

The key concept of tragic heroine

According to Aristotle, who is the master of Greek tragedy the tragic hero and heroine must possess some features. But Euripides’s Medea is little different from this tradition. In the play “Medea” Euripiedes represented his heroine in a detached way as a tragic heroine.

অ্যারিস্টটলের মতে, যিনি গ্রীক ট্র্যাজেডির কর্তা তিনি ট্র্যাজিক হিরো এবং নায়িকা অবশ্যই কিছু বৈশিষ্ট্যযুক্ত থাকতে হবে। তবে ইউরিপাইডসের মেডিয়া এই ঐতিহ্য থেকে কিছুটা আলাদা।”মেডিয়া” নাটকটিতে ইউরিপিডিস তার নায়িকাকে বিয়োগান্ত উপায়ে একটি করুণ নায়িকা হিসাবে উপস্থাপন করেছিলেন।


A tragic flaw that causes the downfall of a hero. In the play “Medea” a tragic flaw had been happened to Medea the heroine of the tragedy when Jason got to marry Glauce princess of the Corinth. Medea has left her kingdom and all her happiness for her love with Jason. But Jason has betrayed to Medea not only Medea but also his children. So, we can say that the first feature of a tragic character is filled up by the Euripides’s heroine Medea.


একটি করুণ ত্রুটি যা বীরের পতন ঘটায়। “মেডিয়া” নাটকটিতে ট্র্যাজেডির নায়িকা মেডিয়ার সাথে একটি মর্মান্তিক ত্রুটি ঘটেছে, যখন জেসন ক্রনথের গ্লাউস রাজকন্যাকে বিয়ে করেছিলেন। জেসনের সাথে তার ভালবাসার জন্য মেডিয়া তার রাজত্ব এবং সমস্ত সুখ ছেড়ে চলে গেছে। তবে জেসন কেবল মেডিকেই নয়, তার সন্তানদেরও মেডিয়ার সাথে বিশ্বাসঘাতকতা করেছেন। সুতরাং, আমরা বলতে পারি যে মর্মান্তিক চরিত্রের প্রথম বৈশিষ্ট্যটি ইউরোপাইডের নায়িকা মেডিয়া দ্বারা পূর্ণ হয়।


Hubris means excessive pride and disrespect for the natural order of things. Medea is an egoistic and proud heroine in the history of the Greek classical tragedy. As a princess, she possesses some manly behavior. In her childhood she used to learn necromancy and later practice the black art of magic. Euripides has skillfully presented human character through the Medea because he wanted to free woman from the injustice of woman. But her hubris is quite different from the other tragic character.

“I shall murder my children, these children of mine…if die they must, I shall slay them, who gave them birth.”


হাব্রিস অর্থ জিনিসগুলির প্রাকৃতিক শৃঙ্খলার জন্য অতিরিক্ত গর্ব এবং অসম্মান। গ্রীক ক্লাসিকাল   ট্র্যাজেডির ইতিহাসে মেডিয়া হলেন এক অহঙ্কারী ও গর্বিত নায়িকা। একজন রাজকন্যা হিসাবে, তিনি কিছু পুরুষতামূলক আচরণ ছিল। শৈশবে তিনি নেক্রোমেন্সি শিখতেন এবং পরে কালো জাদু অনুশীলন করতেন। ইউরিপাইডস দক্ষতার সাথে মেডিয়ার মাধ্যমে মানব চরিত্রকে উপস্থাপন করেছেন কারণ তিনি মহিলাকে নারীর অবিচার থেকে মুক্তি দিতে চেয়েছিলেন। তবে তার হুব্রিস অন্যান্য ট্র্যাজিক চরিত্রের থেকে একেবারেই আলাদা।


Peripeteia stands for the reversal of fate that the hero experiences. Unlike the other tragic character such as Oedipus and so on Medea has no tradition peripeteia in her life.


পেরিপেটিয়া হ’ল নায়ক যে ভাগ্যের অভিজ্ঞতা ঘটে তার বিপরীতে দাঁড়ায়। অন্যান্য ট্র্যাজিক চরিত্রের মতো নয় যেমন ওডিপাস এবং তার মতো মেডিয়ার কোন ঐতিহ্য পেরিপেটিয়া তার জীবনে নেই।


A moment in time when hero makes an important discovery in the story.  Jason was the husband of Medea whom Medea loved and married. They were happy in their conjugal life and begot two children. But when Medea was informed by the Nurse that Jason gone to marry the Corinth princess Glauce. It was an important discovery of the life Medea. And made a heinous plan to murder of Glauce and her two children for taking revenge to Jason for eternal sufferings.

Good-bye to my former plans…I cannot do it. And yet what is the matter with me? Do I want to make myself a laughingstock by letting my enemies off scot-free? I must go through with it…I do realize how terrible is the crime I am about,


এমন এক মুহুর্তে যখন নায়ক গল্পের একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ আবিষ্কার করেন। জেসন মেডিয়ার স্বামী ছিলেন, যাকে মেডিয়া ভালবাসেন এবং বিবাহ করেছিলেন। তারা তাদের বিবাহবন্ধনে সুখে ছিল এবং দুটি সন্তানের জন্ম দিয়েছিল। কিন্তু যখন মেডিকে নার্সের দ্বারা জানানো হয়েছিল যে জেসন করিন্থের রাজকন্যা গ্লাউসকে বিয়ে করতে গিয়েছিলেন। এটি ছিল মেডিয়া জীবনের একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ আবিষ্কার। চিরকালীন দুর্ভোগের জন্য জেসনের প্রতিশোধ নেওয়ার জন্য গ্লাউস এবং তার দুই সন্তানকে হত্যার এক জঘন্য পরিকল্পনা তৈরি করেছিল।


A punishment that the protagonist cannot avoid, usually occurring as a result of his hubris. Like the other classical tragic hero Medea cannot avoid the punishment of fate. To get Golden Fleece Medea has killed her own biological brother it was her crime for this she suffered a lot.  


এমন একটি শাস্তি যা নায়কটি এড়াতে পারে না, সাধারণত তার হুব্রিসের ফলস্বরূপ ঘটে। অন্যান্য ক্লাসিকাল ট্র্যাজিক হিরোর মতো মেডিয়া ভাগ্যের শাস্তি এড়াতে পারে নি । গোল্ডেন ফ্লিস পাওয়ার জন্য মেডিয়া তার নিজের ভাইকে মেরে ফেলার অপরাধের জন্য তাকে অনেক দুর্ভোগ পোহাতে হইয়াছিল।


Feelings of pity and fear felt by the audience, for the inevitable downfall of the protagonist. In the entire play we notice that catharsis is aroused among the audience. When Medea killed Glauce and Creon and gave an information to Jason that she would kill Jason’s two children. This situation is created a great pity for the two children and fear for Medea’s activity. So, we can say that Medea has fulfilled almost all the characteristics features of a tragic heroine. 


নায়কটির অনিবার্য অবক্ষয়ের জন্য শ্রোতাদের অনুভূতি ও ভয়ের অনুভূতি। পুরো নাটকে আমরা লক্ষ্য করেছি যে শ্রোতাদের মধ্যে ক্যাথেরিস জাগ্রত হয়েছে। যখন মেডিয়া গ্লাউস এবং ক্রিওনকে হত্যা করেছিল এবং জেসনকে একটি তথ্য দিয়েছিল যে সে জেসনের দুটি সন্তানকে হত্যা করবে। এই পরিস্থিতি দুটি সন্তানের জন্য একটি দুর্দান্ত করুণা তৈরি করেছে এবং মিডিয়ার কার্যকলাপের জন্য ভয়। সুতরাং, আমরা বলতে পারি যে মেডিয়া একটি মর্মান্তিক নায়িকার সমস্ত বৈশিষ্ট্য বৈশিষ্ট্যগুলি পূরণ করেছে।

Conclusion: In the light of the above discussion, we can summarize that Medea is undoubtedly a tragic heroine but a different angle from the traditional tragic hero or heroine because she was vengeful to the reasons of her misfortune. She is not only vengeful also finished her revenge.

9.Discuss the Olympian gods and goddesses delineated in “The Iliad”.

Introduction: Gods and Goddesses play an important role in Homer’s “Iliad”. No traditional stories in ancient Greece were imaginable without gods and goddesses. As one of the forefathers of Greek literature, Homer represents Olympian gods and goddesses in an extraordinary way.

Same feelings like human beings

In Homer’s “Iliad”, Olympian gods and goddesses experience the same emotions of love, hatred, revengefulness, jealousy and antagonism etc. like human beings. The main difference between gods and goddesses and human beings is that the deities have power to control the course of events while human beings cannot do so generally. Actually, Homer has given individual features of gods and goddesses in his prominent epic.


As we know that the destructive trojan war took place between the Trojans and the Achaeans that is why Homer’s gods and goddesses maintains partiality. Hera who is the queen of Olympian gods and goddesses wants to ruin the trojans because Paris rejected her bribe to make a decision in her favor in the beauty contest. Athena who is the goddess of wisdom and war goes against Paris since Paris also rejected her to declare the winner of the beauty contest. On the other hand, Aphrodite who is the goddess of beauty wishes to defend Paris because Paris declared her winner. Thus, even goddesses possess human quality.

Familial quarrelling

Gods in “The Iliad” quarrel like mortal families do. After a day’s work, they enjoy an ambrosia that means evening meal and imbibe nectar that means drink. They are engaged in teasing, fond of entertainment and go to bed with their spouses. They interact with humans and even exchange hot words with them. Human beings do not often respect the gods and goddess while talking to them. Thus, when Aphrodite asks Helen to make love with Paris, Helen refuses and says to Aphrodite in anger.

“No, go and sit with him yourself. Forget you are a goddess. Go and pamper him and one day he may make you his wife or his concubine.”

Concerned with human affairs

Gods are very much concerned about human affairs. Humans worship gods or offer sacrifices to them and in exchange they get the support from. In Book 1, when Apollo’s priest Chryses was in trouble and failed to ransom his daughter from Agamemnon, he prayed to Apollo to rescue his daughter. Apollo helps Chryses to get back his daughter.


All the gods and goddesses in “The Iliad” do not hesitate to take part in the war directly though none of them is a good fighter in the battle field. Their direct participation in the war often makes them funny and ridiculous. In Book XX1, gods fought among themselves. For example: Athena defeats Ares and Aphrodite. Hera drives Artemis from the battle field and Poseidon challenges Apollo. It is proven that one of the seven sins of the world is revenge that is out and out present in the gods and goddesses.


Homeric gods are immortals but they are subject to undergo sufferings. In Book V, we know that Aphrodite is stabbed by Diomedes. Diomedes pierces her flesh. Aphrodite gives a piercing scream and dropped her son. In the same book, Diomedes with the help of Athena also stabs the war god Ares who also gives a yell loudly. Thus, it is proved that Homeric gods and goddesses suffer from human sufferings.

Conclusion: Thus, in the “Iliad” Homer’s gods form a society or an organization. They display the behavior of all kinds of people. They can be loving and generous, wise, and tolerant. These can be based, agile, and disgusting and they can be quick to rage. This treatment of the Olympian deities of the “Iliad” is perfectly Homeric.

10.Consider Medea as a revenge tragedy.

Introduction: “Medea” (431 BC) is a tragedy written by the classic tragedian Euripides (480 – 406 BC). It is based on the subject of the conflict between man and woman. Revenge is one of the important features in the tragedy “Medea”. Sundry points of view make it revenge tragedy.

Definition of revenge tragedy

“Revenge tragedy” is the outcome of adding two words. According to the Cambridge Dictionary, revenge means “harm done to someone as a punishment for harm that they have done to someone else.”

According to the Cambridge Dictionary, Tragedy means “a very sad event or situation, especially one involving death or suffering.”

So, revenge tragedy is a tragedy in which a counter-attack will be shown after an attack.


Oppression is the main feature of a revenge tragedy. There can be different kinds of oppression such as psychological, physical, financial oppression. In this tragedy, Medea has been oppressed by her husband, Jason’s betrayal. Medea is the princess of Colchis. She falls in love with Jason when Jason goes to rescue the Golden Fleece. In a sentence, she does everything legal and illegal for him. But Jason betrays her by getting a second marriage.

Acute sufferings

Suffering is an important feature of a revenge tragedy. We find the sufferings of some characters in the play. Medea is the heroine of the play and sufferer of betraying. Besides, Jason, his sons, Glauce, and the king of Corinth, Creon are also the sufferer in the play. Their sufferings are the result of Jason’s betraying towards Medea. Medea’s this dialogue proves her suffering:

“Alas, alas, I have suffered, suffered things worthy of many tears.”

Being imbalanced

Being imbalanced is an important feature of a revenge tragedy. This is common that if someone hurts one, he or she will be imbalanced from anger. Medea has done the same thing in the play. Medea is the person who kills her brother, being exiled from her family and city only for Jason. Instead of her sacrifices, she gets his betrayal from him. Jason forgets her sacrifices and marries Glauce. Being imbalanced Medea cries for justice in the following manner:

“For me with justice to avenge these wrongs on my perfidious husband…..”

As a result, she becomes imbalanced and wants to take revenge upon him anyway.

Hypocrite character

Hypocrite character will be present in a revenge tragedy. If we look at the background of getting the Golden Fleece, we will get why Jason was sent to get the Golden Fleece. Actually, Jason is the prince of Iolcus. He is the son of the king Aeson. Jason was sent abroad to gain knowledge.

Here, Pelias, uncle of Jason announces his kingship in Iolcus after Aeson. When Jason comes back to his homeland, he claims his kingship after his father. But his uncle refuges his claim and plots upon him to murder. The Golden Fleece of Corinth was a valuable thing to them.  One who goes to take it, nobody can come back alive. Pelias sent Jason to take the Golden Fleece. The purpose of this is to murder him.

So, in this case, we can see that Pelias is the hypocrite character whom Medea kills by his daughter.

Destruction of both party

The ending of a revenge tragedy is destructive for both parties. This is one of the important features of a revenge tragedy. We come to know that Medea has taken her revenge upon Jason by killing Glauce, the king of Corinth, and her own two sons. On this side, the palace has been destroyed. Jason becomes mad-like because he has lost his sons and new bride. On the other hand, though Medea takes her revenge on Jason, she has lost her own sons. So, this is clear that both parties have been destroyed.

Conclusion: From the light of the above discussion, we can say that v this tragedy contains almost all the characteristics of a revenge tragedy. So, this is nothing but a revenge tragedy.

11.Discuss the dramatic significance of the death-scene of Glauce.

Introduction: “Medea” (431 BC) is a tragedy written by the classic tragedian Euripides (480 – 406 BC). The death-scene of Glauce is one of the important incidents in the play. This is the climax of the of the play. There are different kinds of dramatic significance. Let us discuss the dramatic significance of the death-scene of Glauce.

Giving lesson to Jason

Jason is the husband of Medea. They fall in love with each other in Colchis in Jason goes to capture the Golden Fleece. She is the princess of Colchis. Jason gets a condition to get his kingship in Iolcus after his father that he has to bring the Golden Fleece at any cost.

In Colchis, Jason gets supreme help from Medea to get the Golden Fleece. They have gotten married and produced two sons. After that, he betrays Medea by getting second marriage. So, by this death-scene, she gives a lesson to Jason how pain she got being betrayed. These sentences are enough to prove Medea’s love for Jason:

“The person who was everything to me,

my own husband, has turned out to be

the worst of men.”

Proving supreme passion and pride of Medea

The death-scene happened from her deep hatred. Once, she loved Jason a lot. She does everything for Jason. She kills her own brother, exiled from her city, kills Pelias by his daughter. Her passion and pride for Jason know no bounds. When Jason betrays her by marrying Glauce, she cannot tolerate it. Her love goes back to “U-Turn”. This death-scene proves the supreme passion and pride of Medea.

The lesson for the audience

The death-scene of Glauce is the lesson for the audience. This scene proves that nobody can be happy in life breaking other’s happiness. We come to know that Jason is the husband of Medea. This couple has two sons. But Glauce gives consent to marry Jason. She breaks the other bank of the same river and makes a bank. The lesson for the audience is that do not be harmful to others to ensure own happiness.

Sign of the desire for wealth and power

The desire for wealth and power brings destruction. Jason is a prince but his family has been exiled. They take shelter in Corinth, the area of Creon. He becomes unhappy with his current situation in life. He desires to become a powerful and wealthy man in Corinth.

As a result, he wants to marry Glauce, the princess of Corinth. But he has forgotten Medea’s contribution to his life. Being imbalanced, Medea wants to take revenge upon him at any cost. So, she kills the princess and the king of Corinth. These sentences will be clear from the dialogue of Jason:

“…this royal bride I have, I did not marry her

because of any woman…….

I wanted to save you and have children,

royal princes, with the same blood as my sons.

That way my house has more security.”

Medea’s triumph over enemies

Medea becomes the enemy of the palace of Corinth. The father of Glauce does not believe in Medea. He thinks she can be harmful to his daughter. He knows that Medea is a clever woman than others. He exiles Medea and her two sons from Corinth. After hearing the death news from the messenger, she kills her children.

Whatever the situation, she takes revenge upon Jason by giving pain in life. This death-scene proves her triumph over enemies.

Conclusion: From the light of the above discussion, it is clear that the death-scene of Glauce is the result of Jason’s betrayal. The significance of the death-scene has no bounds in the play. The main purpose of the scene is to give bitter sufferings to Jason.

12.Summarize the literary debate between Aeschylus and Euripides in “The Frogs”.

Introduction: Dionysus’ journey to the underworld bringing a poet back to Athens is the center of the satirical drama “The Frogs” by Aristophanes (446 – 386 BC). The last section of the competition between the two late poets of Athens, Euripides and Aeschylus, helps Dionysus better understand what his city-state needs. A concise analysis of the literary debate will help us to support Dionysus’ choice.

Quarrelsome preliminary stage of the contest

Three chairs are on the stage. Pluto sits on the central chair, Dionysus on his left and Aeschylus on the right. Euripides touches Aeschylus’ chair and says he will not let go Aeschylus with Dionysus because he is better than Aeschylus. Euripides has continued calling him “the creator of barbarism, a proud loudmouth, / a restless, carefree, blocked face”. Angry, Aeschylus says Euripides is a “bubble collector, creator of a monk and so on. Dionysus warns them not to debate in an aggressive way. Aeschylus jokes that this is not a competition on equal terms because his poem has not died with him though he is not alive. Through this, the playwright upheavals the universal tendency of human beings of superiority, from their own perspective.

Declaration of the Rituals for literary debate

Dionysus announces that he would judge the competition with integrity and urges the Chorus to sing the music. The chorus also announces the rules of the debate. Then each poet prays – Aeschylus to Demeter and Euripides to Sky, Smarts and Pivot to the Tongue. Thus, Aristophanes is the originator of the literary debate in the history of world literature.

Evaluation of general issues

The general evaluation of the contest starts with chorus’s declaration about the sharp arguments between Euripides and Aeschylus. Euripides tries to expose his rival as the charlatan and quack. He also satirizes his obnoxious use of words. Aeschylus in his defense questions Euripides what qualities of a poet should be admired. He responds ‘skill and good counsel’ because they make people better. Then Aeschylus tells him that he has ruined people. Aeschylus defenses objection against his obnoxious use of language in the following manner:

“Great thoughts / and ideas force us to produce

expressions that are equal to them”.

So, evaluation of general issues of the poets’ literary work through contest is a proper token of modern literary criticism.

Prologues and lyrical qualities

In the literary competition between Euripides and Aeschylus in the hades, the prologue and lyrical qualities of the poet are mocked in pungent way. Euripides begins through examining one of prologues of Aeschylus –a line from the Oresteia.  He also condemns by saying all of Aeschylus’s lyrics have the same pattern; he cites a few examples from the Myrmidons and Ghost Riders. Such evaluation and criticism are one of the pivotal features of literary satire or criticism.

Weighing of the Verses

In the weighing of verse, there are a number of series and each time Aeschylus goes lower but in the final weighing he is victorious with lines of,

“Chariot upon chariot, and corpse upon corpse”

He laughs that Euripides could put his whole family and book altogether against him and he would still lose. This stage of competition can be compared with all the literary criticism of modern and post-modern period of English literary.

Appreciation of the political sagacity of the poets

Dionysus is really helpless and confused to select one bringing back to human society for the protection of Athens. But the time comes to him since Euripides fails to be perfect regarding political urgency and Aeschylus wins because he shows suffice wisdom and intelligence to protect the demos of Athens. By the final stage of the contest, it is proved that Aeschylus is chosen as he has proper interpretation of life. Finally, Dionysus changes his previous longing and proclaims that he is choosing Aeschylus as the chorus says while his journey to hades.

“Grant fine idea that will bring fine blessings”

Conclusion: The choice of Aristophanes certainly reflects his views on the need for Athens. The scholar James Redfield writes, “The conflict between Aeschylus and Euripides is a poetic manifestation of the contradiction between old and new politics, and the victory of Aeschylus is a rejection of a new way of life, a return to the old moral center.”

Part – B

1.Write in brief about Aeschylus gods and goddesses.

Introduction: Aeschylus was one of the most famous playwrights and top tragic poets of ancient Greece, including Sophocles and Euripides. Around 458 BC, he wrote a three-part play known as the Oresteia or Trilogy. The first play of the Orestia or Trilogy was “Agamemnon” followed by “The Libation Bearers” and the third play was “Eumenides”. In most dramas of Orestia or Trilogy, the main themes that can be noticed especially are justice and revenge, the evolution of personal revenge in a civilized court system, infidelity and blasphemy, and especially the role of gods and goddesses in human life.

ভূমিকা: এস্ক্লিস ছিলেন সোফোক্লস এবং ইউরিপিডিসহ প্রাচীন গ্রিসের সর্বাধিক বিখ্যাত নাট্য রচনা ও শীর্ষ ট্র্যাজিক কবিদের একজন। খ্রিস্টপূর্ব ৪৫৮ সালের দিকে তিনি তিন অংশের নাটক লিখেছিলেন যা ওরেস্টিয়া বা ট্রিলজি নামে পরিচিত। ওরেস্টিয়া বা ট্রিলজির প্রথম নাটকটি ছিল আগামেমনন তারপরে দ্য লিবেশন বিয়ারারস এবং তৃতীয় নাটকটি ইউম্যানাইডস ছিল। ওরেস্টিয়া বা ট্রিলজির বেশিরভাগ নাটকগুলিতে, মূল থিমগুলি বিশেষত: ন্যায়বিচার এবং প্রতিহিংসা, সভ্য আদালত ব্যবস্থায় ব্যক্তিগত প্রতিশোধের বিবর্তন, বিশ্বাসঘাতকতা এবং নিন্দাবাদ এবং বিশেষত মানব জীবনে দেবদেবীদের ভূমিকা।

The introduction of gods and goddesses

The gods and goddesses of ancient Greece played a significant role in the lives of the characters because they had the power to control and influence. These gods and goddesses became such an important element of the story that the story would be lacking without them. They are the main elements of Greek mythology. Many have acknowledged these Olympian gods and goddesses by names – Zeus, their leader, Hera, Poseidon, Apollo, Athena, Artemis, Hades, Demeter, Dionysus, and many others.

দেব-দেবীর পরিচয়

প্রাচীন গ্রিসের দেবদেবীরা চরিত্রগুলির জীবনে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ভূমিকা পালন করেছিল কারণ তাদের নিয়ন্ত্রণ ও প্রভাবের ক্ষমতা ছিল। এই দেবদেবীরা গল্পের এমন একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ উপাদান হয়ে উঠেছে যে গল্পগুলি সেগুলি ছাড়া অভাব বোধ করবে। এগুলি গ্রীক পুরাণের মূল উপাদান। অনেকে এই অলিম্পিয়ান দেবদেবীদের নাম দ্বারা স্বীকৃতি দিয়েছেন – জিউস, তাদের নেতা হেরা, পোসেইডন, অ্যাপোলো, অ্যাথেনা, আর্টেমিস, হেডেস, ডেমিটার, ডায়োনিসাস এবং আরও অনেকে।

Exchanging nature

In the play entitled “Agamemnon”, King Agamemnon sacrifices his daughter Iphigenia to the goddess Artemis in order to obtain the goddess’s grace to provide the air which he needs for the safety of his journey to the city of Troy. From here, one can notice that a person agrees to sacrifice a loved one just to please these deities. Clytemnestra, on the other hand, goes to the palace and lights her own sacrificial fire, and begins to pray so that the Greeks can be victorious in the Trojan war and never fail to honor the gods of Troy. The chorus offers a kind of prayer that thanks Zeus for this victory but the chorus also reminds the audience that those who have committed heinous crimes or disobeyed their orders would be punished.

বিনিময় প্রকৃতি

“আগামেমনন” শিরোনামের নাটকে রাজা আগামেমনন তাঁর কন্যা ইফিজেনিয়াকে দেবী আর্তেমিসের কাছে বলিদান করেছিলেন যাতে ট্রয় শহরে তাঁর যাত্রাপথের সুরক্ষার জন্য যা প্রয়োজন বায়ু সরবরাহ করতে তিনি দেবীর অনুগ্রহ পেতে পারেন। এখান থেকে, কেউ লক্ষ করতে পারেন যে কোনও ব্যক্তি কেবল এই দেবদেবীদের সন্তুষ্ট করতে প্রিয়জনের ত্যাগ করতে সম্মত হন। অন্যদিকে, ক্লিটেমনেস্ট্রা প্রাসাদে গিয়ে তার নিজের বলিদানের আগুন জ্বলিয়ে দেয় এবং প্রার্থনা শুরু করে যাতে গ্রীকরা ট্রোজান যুদ্ধে বিজয়ী হয় এবং ট্রয়ের দেবতাদের সম্মান করতে কখনও ব্যর্থ হয়। কোরাস এক প্রকার প্রার্থনা করে যা জিউসকে এই জয়ের জন্য ধন্যবাদ জানায় তবে কোরাস শ্রোতাদের মনে করিয়ে দেয় যে যারা জঘন্য অপরাধ করেছে বা তাদের আদেশ অমান্য করেছে তাদের শাস্তি দেওয়া হবে।

Violators of the law

The gods of Greek mythology are known to be as inconsistent and deceptive as their human counterparts. They themselves violated the law which they commanded the people to obey. For example, they often disbelieve. They preached violence and showed extra pride. To understand this method, one must understand the role of Artemis. First, she was a known protector of wild animals while also serving as the patron deity of hunters. She herself was a huntress. Artemis thus expresses a lack of sympathy for two humans: a hunter, King Agamemnon, and a virgin, Iphigenia. In Agamemnon, Aeschylus does not deal with the subject of deception in public, but he does mention it intentionally in the choral song.

আইন লঙ্ঘনকারী

গ্রীক পৌরাণিক কাহিনীটির দেবতারা তাদের মানব সহযোগীদের মতোই বেমানান এবং প্রতারণামূলক হিসাবে পরিচিত। তারা নিজেরাই সেই আইন লঙ্ঘন করেছিল যা তারা জনগণকে মেনে চলার আদেশ করেছিল। উদাহরণস্বরূপ, তারা প্রায়শই কাফের হয়। তারা সহিংসতার প্রচার করেছিল এবং অতিরিক্ত গর্ব দেখিয়েছিল। এই পদ্ধতিটি বুঝতে, আর্টেমিসের ভূমিকাটি বুঝতে হবে। প্রথমত, তিনি শিকারিদের পৃষ্ঠপোষক দেবতার দায়িত্ব পালন করার সময় বন্য প্রাণীদের এক প্রবক্তা ছিলেন। তিনি নিজেই শিকারী ছিলেন। আর্টেমিস এইভাবে দুটি মানুষের প্রতি সহানুভূতির অভাব প্রকাশ করে: একটি শিকারি, কিং আগামেমনন এবং একটি কুমারী, ইফিজেনিয়া। আগামেমনন-এ, এসচ্লিয়াস প্রকাশ্যে প্রতারণার বিষয় নিয়ে কাজ করে না, তবে তিনি কোরালের গানে ইচ্ছাকৃতভাবে এর উল্লেখ করেছেন।

Conclusion: Greek dramas like Orestia depict one of the most notable aspects of Greek literature, the role of the gods and goddesses. It is characteristic of the Greek people to be religious because of their belief in various deities. These gods shaped their culture and beliefs.

উপসংহার: ওরেস্টিয়ার মতো গ্রীক নাটক গ্রীক সাহিত্যের অন্যতম উল্লেখযোগ্য দিক, দেবদেবীদের ভূমিকা চিত্রিত করে। বিভিন্ন দেবদেবীর প্রতি বিশ্বাসের কারণে গ্রীক জনগণের ধর্মীয় হওয়া তাদের বৈশিষ্ট্য। এই দেবতারা তাদের সংস্কৃতি এবং বিশ্বাসকে আকার দিয়েছে।

2. Bring out the dramatic significance of “Red Carpet Episode or Scene” in Agamemnon.

Introduction: The Red-Carpet episode plays a significant role in the play Agamemnon. Agamemnon’s besetting sin is his Hubris or pride and from the point of view of the ancient Greeks, Hubris or pride was the deadliest of the seven deadly sins. This episode is the most crucial to the punishment of Agamemnon. A man whatever might be his earthly rank and position must not walk upon the Red Carpet.

Figurative significance of the Red Carpet

The Red Carpet’ figuratively means privileged treatment of a very important visitor. In Greek society, it meant much more. To walk on the “Red Carpet’ was an act of impudence, an act of blasphemy defying the authority of the gods. Anybody doing it was charged with Hubris or pride.

A hidden trap towards the downfall

Clytemnestra was bent on leading Agamemnon into this crime so that he would be deprived of divine help. After welcoming Agamemnon, she calls upon her maids to spread a carpet of purple cloth from the chariot to the palace door to receive the feet of the conqueror. In reply he rebukes her.

….To the gods alone Such tributes should be paid, for mortal man To trample on rich webs of varied hue To me is a thing by no means void of fears I seek for human honours, not divine.

She does not protest but appeals to him with all her persuasive eloquence. Agamemnon’s speech is of modesty and humility. But his wife cajoles him to be no less glorious than gods as he has conquered the city of Troy. By her strong will, Clytemnestra easily overcomes her husband and soon Agamenon falls to her trap inviting his own doom. So Nemesis or downfall must follow him.

Conclusion: Finally, it can be said that Agamemnon’s personal failure or Hubris is no less responsible for the punishment that he receives at the hand of the divine authority.

  1. Discuss the pattern of life spent by Hippolytus.

Or, How did Hippolytus die?

Introduction: Hippolytus is the son of the Athenian hero, Theseus. Theseus’ wife and Hippolytus’ stepmother, Phaedra, develops a secret love for Hippolytus. This love was unnatural; the goddess of love, Aphrodite, fostered this love as revenge against Hippolytus. As a result, Phaedra falls into a deep sickness when she realizes her marriage to Theseus means that she and Hippolytus can never truly be together.

Lover of Nature

Hippolytus is a lover of nature. Most of time of his life, he has spent by hunting in the forests. As he has a feeling of leading single life, he never feels sexually passionate love for any woman.


Phaedra resolves to starve herself to death due to her unrequited love for Hippolytus. However, Phaedra confesses her forbidden love to her nurse after a series of conversations. The nurse tells Phaedra that she can cure her, but instead of solving the matter of this cursed love, the meddling nurse tells Hippolytus of his stepmother’s love for him so that Hippolytus can be attracted by this love. But it never happens because Hippolytus rejects this heinous love openly. When Phaedra comes to know this, she commits suicide by hanging herself, but before committing suicide, Phaedra leaves a note to Theseus claiming that Hippolytus raped her.

Victim of misfortune

When Theseus returns from a year of exile and discovers the body of his wife and the note, he understandably becomes enraged. He banishes his son from the land, by the punishment of death should Hippolytus return, and curses Hippolytus in the name of his father, Poseidon. As Hippolytus is preparing his chariot to leave, an enormous bull appears from the sea, sent by Poseidon, frightening the horses and catching Hippolytus off guard. The horses flee, dragging the unsuspecting Hippolytus behind them, mortally wounding the protagonist and he finally dies after getting forgiveness from his father and also forgiving his father.

Conclusion: In termination, it is transparent that the illicit love affair is not allowed even in Greek mythology, that is why from the life style of Hippolytus, it is warning for the people of the world that if anybody is influenced by the passion of unrequited love, destruction will come not only in his or her life but in the lives of those who are connected with him or her.

3.What role does Pluto play in “The Frogs”?

Introduction: Pluto is the god of the underworld and the husband of Persephone. In order to get rid of Euripides, who is causing problems in Hades, Pluto wants that Dionysus will take Euripides back with him.

Teaching for hospitability

When Dionysus reaches Hades, Pluto shows his utmost hospitability and after the finishing of debate between Aeschylus and Euripides, Pluto arranges a royal dinner for Dionysus.

Love for contest

When Pluto hears from Dionysus that Dionysus wants to take anyone between Aeschylus and Euripides, Pluto arranges a literary debating contest so that Dionysus can choose easily the perfect one.

President of the debating contest

Pluto is the respectful leader of Hades. Three chairs are on the stage. Pluto sits on the central chair, Dionysus on his left and Aeschylus on the right. Euripides touches Aeschylus’s chair and says he will not let go of Aeschylus with Dionysus because he is better than Aeschylus. Euripides has continued calling him “the creator of barbarism, a proud loudmouth, / a restless, carefree, blocked face”. Angry, Aeschylus says Euripides is a “bubble collector, creator of a monk and so on. Dionysus warns them not to debate in an aggressive way. Aeschylus jokes that this is not a competition on equal terms because his poem has not died with him though he is not alive. Through this, the playwright upheavals the universal tendency of human beings’ superiority, from their own perspective. As the president of the contest, Pluto is charmed by the controlling and motivational power of Dionysus.

Conclusion: It is right to be said that Aristophanes tries to teach the world that literary works must be evaluated based on the social context. And through the role of Pluto, the playwright asserts that a leader should also have a guardian like Pluto.

4.Why did Jason marry Glauce in “Medea”?

Introduction: Medea is an acclaimed Greek tragedy by Euripides. The play is set in the ancient Greek city-state of Corinth. Jason has left his wife, Medea, and married the princess of Corinth, Glauce.

To achieve Golden Fleece

As the play begins, the Nurse who is Medea’s slave gives a monologue summarizing the events which took place before the play began. Jason had been given the task of capturing the Golden Fleece by king Pelias who took the throne of Iolcus away from Jason’s father. The Golden Fleece that a ram’s gold skin is defended by a dragon in Colchis which is a region on the Black Sea. With a group of men called the Argonauts, Jason sailed to Colchis in the Argo and enlisted the help of Medea, the daughter of the king of Colchis, to carry out the task. Medea who has magical powers fell passionately in love with Jason. She not only helped him by betraying her own family but married him. She then made a plot to murder Pelias through trickery which forced the couple into exile in Corinth. They have two sons, but Jason wants more wealth that is why he leaves Medea for his new bride named Glauce who is the daughter of King Creon of Corinth.

For political ambitions

As we know that after the adventures of the Golden Fleece, the Greek hero Jason took his wife Medea into exile at Corinth. However, he then left her for seeking his political ambitions by marrying Glauce, the daughter of King Creon of Corinth.

Conclusion: We can say that Jason’s decision to dishonor and abandon Medea leads the play towards revenge and treachery.

5.Write a short note on Cassandra.

Introduction: Cassandra was the daughter of the Trojan King Priam and Hecuba. She was a prophetess and a pivotal figure among the rulers of Troy and a priestess of Athena. She was loved by Apollo. But as she refused to offer him her virginity, Apollo made her gift of prophecy useless, which he once bestowed upon her. As no one believed her, she was secluded, disrespected, mocked at and deserted by all the people around her, even by her own parents.

Background facts about Cassandra

To understand Cassandra, we must look back to the Epic named Illiad by Homer. In Iliad, Homer tells of Cassandra as ‘the most beautiful of Priam’s daughters’ When she was a young girl, she had been loved by the god Apollo. The god gave her the power of true prophecy. But because she refused his love, Apollo confounded the gift. Since his gift could not be recalled, he decreed that, while she should always foresee and foretell the truth, none should believe her prophetic utterances. All through the long agony of Trojan war we have a sense of Cassandra at the altar, lifting pure hands in supplication for her dear city. Her life was consecrated. She was made captive. And she was carried away by Agamemnon to be his concubine. And Aeschylus has presented Cassandra in his renowned play entitled “Agamemnon”.

Conclusion: So, Cassandra is one of the significant characters of the Greek tragedy “Agamemnon” since her presence in the palace of Agamemnon makes Clytemnestra more furious and she feels jealousy in love.

6. Write a short note on Homeric simile.

Or, Discuss the epic simile.

Introduction: The Homeric simile is also called an epic simile. This is a detailed comparison in the form of a simile through many lines of length. To put it differently, Homeric simile is a broad comparison between two different objects in which ‘like’ or ‘as’ are usually used. The term “Homeric simile” is based on the Greek writer Homer, who wrote two famous epics entitled “The Iliad” and “The Odyssey”. Many writers continue to use this kind of simile in their writing even though it is usually found in classics. The aspects of Homeric simile are given below:

Gigantic comparison

The typical Homeric simile compares to any kind of event in the form of “like a ____ when it ______”. The object of comparison is something strange or unfamiliar in general. For example, there are many examples in the “Iliad” that compare warriors to lions attacking wild boar or other prey.

Producing pathos and humor

These similes help the reader to take pre-war peace and abundance from the battlefield for a short time. Often, these occur in moments of high action or emotion, especially during a battle. In the words of Peter Jones, Homeric similes “miraculously, redirects the reader’s attention in the most unexpected way and cuts the poem with spontaneity, pathos, and humor. They are also important because the narrator speaks directly to the audience through these illustrations.

Introduction and glorification of characters

G.P. Shipp, however, argues that Homer’s simile texts seem irregular as if they had been added later. On the other hand, William Clyde Scott, in his book “The Oral Nature of the Homeric Simile” suggests that Homer’s similes are based on the similarities of the simile and the descriptive text around them. Scott has argued that Homer initially uses similes to introduce his characters, “sometimes to glorify them and sometimes simply to focus on them.”

A great poetic device

Scott also notes that Homer’s similes have served as a poetic instrument to predetermine and keep the reader interested – just as the fateful, climactic confrontation of Achilles and Hector.

Focusing on the physical motion and mental turmoil

In her article on Homer’s Simile, Eleanor Rambo agrees with Scott. According to her, Homer uses similes in two different ways: one that puts pressure on physical motion and one that puts pressure on mental turmoil.

“Her mind in torment, wheeling like some lion at bay, dreading the gangs of hunters closing their cunning ring around him for the finish.”

Conclusion: Homer was a master storyteller. His profession was entertainment. The choice of comparisons used in his similes adds distinct images in the fashion of prominent details, thus dramatically increasing the impact on the audience.

7.Question: Discuss the role of Dionysus in the play “The Frogs”.

Introduction: “The Frogs” is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes (446-386) BC. In the play, Dionysus at first appears as a comic character who exchanges quizzes with his slave, Xanthias. He later becomes a serious and wise judge of Hades. His decision to bring Aeschylus back to the land of the living is the culmination of the drama.

Mythological concept

Dionysus was the ancient Greek god of wine, wine-making, grape cultivation, fertility, ritual insanity, theater, and religious ecstasy. His Roman name was Bacchus. Since the wine was a major part of ancient Greek culture, Dionysus was an important and popular figure in mythology. He was one of the twelve Olympians, although he was the last to arrive and his unusual birth and upbringing marked him as an outsider. Aristophanes has created the character of Dionysus as the prolocutor of his play.

A protector

Dionysus who is the protagonist of the satirical comedy tells before Heracles, also known as Hercules in Roman and modern west, that he wants to go to Hades with his slave Xanthias in his free will. He basically plans to go down Hades because he needs a talented poet to revive tradition and morality in the demos of Athens that is why he longs for Euripides. It is in God’s tongue:

I need a talented poet, / ‘for some are gone, and those that live are bad.

“cast-offs and merely empty chatter. There are no “potent” poets left”

Thus, it is informed that the living poets are hypocrites just for futile fame, he must bring the talented poet.

A farcical character

The character of Dionysus is not at all like the god. The playwright snatches away all his divine qualities. He has created Dionysus as an obscene and ridiculous man. From the very beginning of The Frogs, Dionysus has been shown as a ridiculous buffoon, and at first glance, one might think that he is a clown in a modern circus ring. He is sometimes felt like a joker when he jokes with his slave Xanthias, or when he wears the strange dress of Heracles; Or when he changes clothes with his slave. Thus, he is almost a sensual trickster of a perfect comedy.

An opportunist

After receiving direction from Heracles, Dionysus embarks on his journey with heavy protest from his servant, Xanthias who will have to carry the heavy luggage. To protest himself, Dionysus asks his servant if there is a problem with carrying large luggage on his shoulders, and Dionysus also argues like the Logicians that Xanthias should not feel the burden while carrying luggage to be a donkey. Thus, Dionysus proves himself as a master and, of course, an opportunist.

A wise judge

Aristophanes has the power to create humor and sagacity within human beings in a very exceptional since he is the first in the canon of western literature to manage a poetic debate between the two greatest deceased poets Euripides and Aeschylus. He philosophically upholds psychological, social, and political issues by dint of such literary contest which at the same make people sensational and wise. Though it becomes tough for Dionysus as a judge to select the most talented poet because they are really sagacious. He chooses Aeschylus to bring back to the world after a series of debates because of Aeschylus’s strong political philosophy. As the Chorus extols, he is:

“A man who has / keen intelligence” and “eminent good sense.”

Thus, Dionysus takes the side of Aeschylus changing his first intention as to Euripides to meet the demand of the time. This is a very crucial message for human beings forever and ever and ever.

Conclusion: In Brief, we can say that the playwright has created Dionysus not as a god but as a human being to focus on the follies of human characters and to show the sagacity of pure heart in the guise of a farcical character.

8.Write a note on the shield of Achilles

The shield of Achilles is one of the significant points of Homer’s Iliad. Achilles uses his shield in his fight with Hector that is famously described in a passage in Book 18, lines 478–608 of Homer’s Iliad. The intricately described imagery on the shield explains various interpretations of its significance without any significant answer.

Hephaestus made this shield and it was an artistic piece of work as well. The shield was round in shape. There are the inscriptions of the earth, sky and seas, the sun, the moon, and the constellation. There are beautiful cities – a city at peace and a city at war. There is the agricultural work like reaping and plowing, there are the cattle, ship and there are the pictures of dances wedding, etc. This visual art symbolizes man’s existence on earth and the essential conflict among man.

9.Write a short note on Trojan Horse

Trojan Horse: Trojan Horse is a story of the Trojan War, about the Greeks entering the independent city of Troy and winning the battle. There is no Trojan horse in Homer’s original poem about the Trojan War, and the story ends with Hector’s body (a great Trojan hero) being recovered by his father Priam, King of Troy, at the hands of Achilles, Greek general. The submission of Hector’s body to Priam implicates that the Trojan War ended in drunken peace.

But in the popular, fictional composition entitled “Aeneid” by Virgil indicates that after 10 years of impeccable siege, under the direction of Odysseus, the Greeks built a huge wooden horse and hid a selected army of men inside the horse, including Odysseus. Thus, the Greeks pretended to leave Troy. As a result, the Trojans dragged the horse to their city as a victory trophy. That night the Greek army came out of the horse and opened the gate of Troy for the rest of the Greek army and in such a way the Greeks completely entered the city and destroyed the city of Troy.

Metaphorically, “Trojan Horse” means any tactic or strategy that could invite the enemy to a secure stronghold or place.

10. Very Important information on the epic “Iliad” for short questions.

a.How does Hector feel about Paris?

Hector is angry with Paris because the men fight for him and he is not out of the fight between them. Paris says he will fight when he is on top of his armor and tells Hector to move on. Hector wanders around the city until he finds his wife Andromache and son, Astyanax.

b.What is Hector’s personality?

Hector’s character is drawn in most favorable colors as a good son, a loving husband and father, and a trusty friend. His leave-taking of Andromache in the sixth book of the Iliad, and his departure to meet Achilles for the last time, are movingly described.

c.How is Hector honorable in the Iliad?

Hector was brave and he stood by the oath to protect his land Troy. Hector faced Achilles on the battle ground and fought like a valiant soldier till he was killed by Achilles. Hector’s bravery was such that he was backed by Zeus, the king of Gods throughout the Trojan War.

d.Why did Achilles cry after killing Hector?

He saw Hector as brother, because they shared together his most important values. And he killed him. Achilles could have probably felt like he killed himself, for a reason that might seem absurd from that perspective… That’s why the tears and that’s why he said “we’ll meet soon my brother”.

e.Who saves Paris from certain death?

Paris’s fight with Menelaus proves embarrassing, and he must be rescued—not by any particularly fierce deity but rather by Aphrodite, the goddess of love (she is even referred to, in Book 5, as the “coward goddess”

f.Why did Hector kill Patroclus?

After leading the Greeks in battle against the Trojans, disguised in the armor of the great Greek hero Achilles, Patroclus is killed by the warrior Hector, fulfilling a prophecy made by the god Zeus. Enraged at the death of his dear friend Patroclus, Achilles is driven to seek vengeance.

g.Did Achilles really kill Hector?

Furious, Achilles vowed to take revenge. He chased Hector back to Troy, slaughtering Trojans all the way. When they got to the city walls, Hector tried to reason with his pursuer, but Achilles was not interested. He stabbed Hector in the throat, killing him.

h.Why is Hector a hero?

Hector is the mightiest warrior in the Trojan army. Although he meets his match in Achilles, he wreaks havoc on the Achaean army during Achilles’ period of absence. He leads the assault that finally penetrates the Achaean ramparts, he is the first and only Trojan to set fire to an Achaean ship, and he kills Patroclus.

i.What is Hector’s weakness?


Hector s weaknesses consisted mainly of his mortality, his bravery and his not-so-quick thinking. If he were not so brave, and was smarter, he would not have come out to fight in the first place. He could have stayed behind the palace walls and spared his own life.

j.What does Achilles do to Hector’s body?

Near death, Hector pleads with Achilles to return his body to the Trojans for burial, but Achilles resolves to let the dogs and scavenger birds maul the Trojan hero. … Achilles ties Hector’s body to the back of his chariot and drags it through the dirt.

k.Why is Hector not a hero?

Whereas Hector is seen as a very introvert hero, he is a dutiful son, brother and soldier, he fights not to gain honor or glory in battle, but out of necessity to protect Troy. He also doesn’t shy away from the duty of war. … Book six is a key point in establishing Hector as a tragic hero.

l.Who is a better hero Hector or Achilles?

From Cicero’s framework, Hector was clearly the better man than Achilles. His actions in the Iliad are largely driven by what Cicero would see as morally good. He fights to keep his community intact, even if on the battlefield he, like all fighting men that Homer depicts, was not above brutality.

m.How did Paris die?

Paris himself, soon after, received a fatal wound from an arrow shot by the rival archer Philoctetes. The “judgment of Paris,” Hermes leading Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite to Paris, detail of a red-figure kylix by Hieron, 6th century BC; in the Collection of Classical Antiquities of the National Museums in Berlin.

n.Did Helen and Paris have a child?

Another account mentions that Helen and Paris had three kids—Bunomus, Corythus, and Idaeus—but sadly, these boys died when the roof of the family home in Troy collapsed.

o.Did Helen love Paris?

Helen was already married to King Menelaus of Sparta (a fact Aphrodite neglected to mention), so Paris had to raid Menelaus’s house to steal Helen from him – according to some accounts, she fell in love with Paris and left willingly. … When Paris took her to Troy, Menelaus invoked this oath.

p.Did Helen Love Paris or Menelaus?

She was married to Menelaus, king of Sparta. Paris, son of King Priam of Troy, fell in love with Helen and abducted her, taking her back to Troy. … Helen returned safely to Sparta, where she lived happily with Menelaus for the rest of her life.

q.Why is Hector more honorable than Achilles?

Hector was honest and had integrity in his beliefs and actions. Achilles was fighting for nothing other than revenge and self-glorification. In the end, Achilles gave everything truly meaningful for death. Hector fights for his country his family, and his loyalties and thus people lean towards him as more honorable.

r.Why did Achilles drag Hector’s body?

Following the funeral of Patroclus, Achilles’ grief makes him restless. He ties Hector’s body to his chariot and repeatedly drags it around the tomb of Patroclus, in his furious need for retribution. However the gods protect Hector’s body so that in spite of this cruel treatment it remains unblemished.

s.Which book does Achilles die in?

The death of Achilles, even if considered solely as it occurred in the oldest sources, is a complex one, with many different versions. In the oldest version, the Iliad, and as predicted by Hector with his dying breath, the hero’s death was brought about by Paris with an arrow (to the heel according to Statius).

t.How does Athena Help Achilles kill Hector?

Athena disguises herself as Deiphobus and tells Hector the two of them should go fight Achilles together. … He adds that Athena will kill Hector in just a moment. Achilles hurls his spear, but Hector ducks and it flies past. Hector does not see Athena retrieve the spear and return it to Achilles.

12. Very important information on “Medea” for short questions

What crimes did Medea commit?

In revenge, she murders Creusa and the king with poisoned gifts, and later murders her own sons by Jason before fleeing for Athens, where she eventually marries king Aegeus. Other traditions mention several other causes of death for Medea’s sons.

Why did Medea fall in love with Jason?

Aeëtes promised to give the Fleece to Jason only if he could perform three certain tasks. … However, Hera had persuaded Aphrodite to convince her son Eros to make Aeëtes’s daughter, Medea, fall in love with Jason.

What was Medea’s revenge?

According to Euripides’ version, Medea took her revenge by sending Glauce a dress and golden coronet, covered in poison. This resulted in the deaths of both the princess and the king, Creon, when he went to save his daughter.

What is Medea’s tragic flaw?

Medea’s hamartia, or flaw, is that she is willing to do anything to get her revenge on Jason. Medea is so blinded by hate and rage that she kills Jason’s new wife, the King and both of her own children.

What is the nature of Medea’s rage?

Medea is a woman of extreme behavior and extreme emotion. For her passionate love for Jason, she sacrificed all, committing unspeakable acts on his behalf. But his betrayal of her has transformed passion into rage. Her violent and intemperate heart, formerly devoted to Jason, now is set on his destruction.

How is Medea’s situation worse than it would be if she were a native of the city?

How is Medea’s situation worse than it would be if she were a native of the city? The city people would know her better. She might not have been exiled. … According to Medea, no sensible person would want clever children.

Who killed Pelias?

Death of Pelias

When Jason and Medea returned, Pelias still refused to give up his throne. Medea conspired to have Pelias’ own daughters (the Peliades) kill him. She told them she could turn an old ram into a young ram by cutting up the old ram and boiling it.

How did Medea kill the princess?

Medea does have a moment of hesitation when she considers the pain that her children’s deaths will put her through. However, she steels her resolve to cause Jason the most pain possible and rushes offstage with a knife to kill her children. As the chorus laments her decision, the children are heard screaming.

Why Medea is a tragedy?

Crystal Smart Medea is a tragedy because it demonstrates a strong tragic hero who has many commendable talents but is destroyed by a tragic flaw. Medea immediately arouses sympathy from the reader, in the beginning of the play. Her nurse introduces Jason, Medea’s husband, as a cheater who left Medea for a princess.

Why Medea is a tragic hero?

Because she fears the king will attempt to avenge the death of his daughter by harming her sons, Medea kills them. By realizing that she will feel the lifelong agony of her sons’ deaths, Medea is the tragic hero.

What is the main message of Medea?

The main themes in Medea are revenge, passion, gender, and power. Revenge: Medea’s revenge is cruel and excessive, and she pays a heavy personal price to enact it. Medea’s righteous fury overwhelms everything else, allowing her to kill her own children so long as Jason also suffers.

Who arranged Jason’s marriage to the princess?


Creon. Creon is King of Corinth and father to Creusa, whose marriage to Jason so infuriates Medea. Creon is well aware of Medea’s bloody reputation; fearing that Medea might, in her rage, harm Creusa, he bans the rejected woman. A soft heart causes the King to allow Medea into the city for one day.

How does Medea die at the end of the play?

Her entire body caught fire and the flesh melted from her bones. When Creon saw his daughter’s flaming corpse, he was so distraught that he threw his body onto hers and died as well. Medea thinks this is great. Now she only has one thing left to do, in order to leave Jason totally devastated – kill their sons.

Is Medea a hero or villain?

Medea is the titular character, main protagonist and central villain of the play where she turns on Jason and makes him suffer in the most vicious way either of them could imagine.

What does Medea symbolize?

Medea is the granddaughter of Helios, and her use of his chariot symbolizes her partial divinity and her female pride and strength.

Was Medea justified in her actions?

as unreasonable, her actions of revenge and desire to cause harm to Jason are justifiable. Due to being heartbroken as a cause of Jason’s betrayal, the lack of power for women in ancient greek society, and Jason’s lack of gratitude and compassion toward Medea, her need for vengeance is understandable.

How did Jason become a tragic hero?

To conclude, Jason is the tragic hero of Medea because his character demonstrates a more complete representation of Aristotle’s criteria of what constitutes as a tragic hero. Despite Jason’s disloyalty, he is a good character that does not act inhumanely or with vindication.

How did Medea kill her sons?

Medea does have a moment of hesitation when she considers the pain that her children’s deaths will put her through. However, she steels her resolve to cause Jason the most pain possible and rushes offstage with a knife to kill her children.

Who killed Jason’s sons?


Even so, few years after the expedition, Jason deserted her for Corinth’s princess, Creusa; unable to bear the betrayal, Medea murdered both Creusa and her two sons by Jason.

Does Medea kill her father?

After taking the fleece and sailing away, Jason and Medea were pursued by her father. To slow him down, Medea killed her brother Absyrtus, dismembered him and threw the body parts at sea; her father stopped to gather all the pieces and give his son a proper burial.

How does Jason die in Medea?

As a result of breaking his vow to love Medea forever, Jason lost his favor with Hera and died lonely and unhappy. He was asleep under the stern of the rotting Argo when it fell on him, killing him instantly.

SR Sarker
SR Sarker
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