NU Fourth Year Especial Suggestion and Notes ELT Exam 2019

NU Fourth Year

Especial suggestion and notes


Exam 2019

Part: c

  1. What are the features and objectives of Desuggestopedia?
  2. Discuss the theories of first language acquisition.
  3. Discuss the differences between Dm and GTM.
  4. What is TBLT? Discuss the types of tasks.
  5. Discuss the major strategies and techniques of improving vocabulary.
  6. Explain the social and psychological factors which play in Acculturation Model of Second Language Development.
  7. Discuss Krasen’s monitor model.
  8. Discuss the principles of Reformation Movement in history of English Language Teaching.
  9. What is linguistic Imperialism? Discuss the role of English Language Teaching in Linguistic Imperialism.
  10. What are the goals and principles of ALM? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.
  11. Identify the challenges in implementing CLT in Bangladesh.

Part: B

  1. Distinguish between intensive and extensive reading.
  2. Define language from the functional point view.
  3. Differentiate between intensive and extensive reading.
  4. What is communicative competence?
  5. Write the purpose teaching vocabulary.
  6. Differentiate between ALM and DM.
  7. Mention the salient techniques used in ALM.
  8. Define tissue rejection.
  9. Write goals of GTM.
  10. What are the techniques and strategies of improving vocabulary?
  11. Discuss the role of teacher in communicative approach.
  12. Where is GTM successful?
  13. What is communicative competence?
  14. Differentiate between approach and method.

N.B. Read the chapters ALM, CLT, SLT, TBLT and Desuggestopedia carefully. Then we can cut a good figure in the exam in all parts – A, B and C.

Part A with Answer

  1. What is IPA?
    Ans: IPA is a system of transcribing the sounds of languages.
  2. What is ‘realia’?
    Ans: Realia refers to real or actual objects used as teaching aids to make learning more natural.
  3. What is coherence?
    Ans: The internal connection between ideas in a writing.
  4. What is ‘Lingua Franca’?
    Ans: Lingua Franca is a language that is adopted as a common language between speakers whose native languages are different.
  5. What is TESEP?
    Ans: The teaching approaches followed in the rest of the world are called TESEP.
  6. Define Appropriate Methodology?
    Ans: Appropriate Methodology refers to a process of making English language education more appropriate to the social requirements of students and educators in different environments throughout the world.
  7. What is the goal of TPR?
    Ans: To provide an enjoyable learning experience.
  8. What are the authentic materials?
    Ans: Authentic materials are teaching materials that were originally designed for native speakers for the purpose of real-life communication.
  9. What does ‘Army Method’ refers to?
    Ans: The ‘Army Method’ refers to a method for the American armies. This is also known as the Audiolingual Method.
  10. Which method is known as the ‘classical method’?
    Ans: The Grammar Translation Method.
  11. What is nativism?
    Ans: The nativist theory of language acquisition states that language is innate and ‘native’ to humans from birth.
  12. What is the method?
    Ans: A method is the reflection of a chosen approach to teaching and learning.
  13. How many phases are there in TBLT?
    Ans: Three phases.
  14. What is SLA and ESL?
    Ans: SLA stands for Second Language Acquisition and ESL stands for English as a Second Language.
  15. What is ‘ELT Methodology’?
    Ans: The teaching methodology of the English language.
  16. Define GTM and Direct Method?
    Ans: GTM is a teaching method where teachers teach grammatical rules to students, and students memorize rules to translate sentences and passages from mother tongue into the target language and vice versa.
    The Direct Method is a system of teaching a foreign language using only that language and without emphasis on the study of grammar.
  17. What do you mean by Skimming and Scanning?
    Ans: Skimming enables readers to look efficiently for something that interests them. Scanning is to glance quickly through a text in order to find a specific piece of information.
  18. What is “Applied linguistics”?
    Ans: Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real life-life problems.
  19. What is pedagogy?
    Ans: The method and practice of teaching.
  20. What is an approach in language teaching?
    Ans: An approach is a way of looking at teaching and learning.
  21. What is meant by LAD?
    Ans: LAD stands for Language Acquisition Device.
  22. How is the learning environment in desuggestopedia?
    Ans: The learning environment is favorable.
  23. What is ‘linguistics imperialism’?
    Ans: The transfer of a dominant language to other people.
  24. Define language from the structural point of view?
    Ans: Language refers to the use of linguistic or grammatical aspects of a language.
  25. What is TESOL?
    Ans: TESOL is the acronym for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
  26. What is the oldest language teaching method?
    Ans: Grammar Translation Method.
  27. Who coined the term ‘Communicative Competence’?
    Ans: Dell Hymes.
  28. Who are the proponents of the Direct Method?
    Ans: Gouin, Berlitz and de Sauze.
  29. What is Scaffolding?
    Ans: The assistance from an expert to help learners reach the next level.
  30. What is the ‘Affective Filter Hypothesis’?
    Ans: Affective filter is a kind of mental block that may decrease the acquisition rate of learners.
  31. What is ZPD?
    Ans: ZPD is the gap between what a learner can learn by themselves and what he/she can learn with help of teachers.
  32. What are the tasks in TBLT?
    Ans: Information-gap, reasoning -gap, and opinion-gap.
  33. Who is originator of desuggestopedia?
    Ans: Georgi Lozanov.
  34. What is ESP?
    Ans: ESP is for English for Specific Purpose.
  35. What is interlanguage?
    Ans: Interlanguage is a kind of linguistic system which can be divided into local parts.
  36. What is PPP in language teaching?
    Ans: Presentation-practice-production.
  37. What is the Natural Approach?
    Ans: A process of language teaching.
  38. What is TBLT?
    Ans: TBLT refers to Task-Based Language Teaching.
  39. What do you mean by ‘Post Method Pedagogy’?
    Ans: A three-dimensional system consisting of the parameters of particularly practicality, and possibility.
  40. What is ‘intensive reading’?
    Ans: Reading with close attention to specific features of a text.
  41. What is Linguistics?
    Ans: The scientific study of language.
  42. What is the procedure?
    Ans: The process of following some techniques to teach a particular skill in the classroom.
  43. Mention the theory of language behind Audiolingualism?
    Ans: Structural linguistics.
  44. Which method replaced the Grammar Translation Method in Bangladesh?
    Ans: The Direct Method.
  45. Which method uses extensive drilling?
    Ans: Audio lingual method.
  46. What is linguistic competence?
    Ans: The system of linguistic knowledge possessed by native speakers of a language.
  47. What is the elaboration of CLT?
    Ans: Communication Language Teaching.
  48. What is learner autonomy?
    Ans: Learner autonomy refers to an approach to learning.
  49. What is the direct method?
    Ans: A language teaching approach.
  50. Explain language shift?
    Ans: A speech community may have two languages, and when it stops using one of these and shifts to the other, it is called language shift.
  51. When was CLT introduced in Bangladesh?
    Ans: In the 1990s.
  52. Define ‘peripheral learning’?
    Ans: Peripheral learning refers to stimulating learning through a rich environment such as classroom decoration featuring the target language.
  53. What is Pantomime?
    Ans: Pantomime is a way of expressing information or telling a story without words by using body movements and facial expressions.
  54. What is schema?
    Ans: Schema refers to the background knowledge that learners use to comprehend a text.
  55. What is the main criticism of the GTM?
    Ans: It does not promote communicative language skills.
  56. What is the full form of BANA and TESEP?
    Ans: BANA- Britain, Australasia, and North America.
    TESEP- Transforming and Enhancing the Student Experience through Pedagogy.
  57. What is orthography?
    Ans: The traditional spelling system of a language.
  58. In which method pronunciation gets little attention?
    Ans: In GTM.
  59. In which method students are the only receiver of lectures?
    Ans: In teacher cantered method.

Part – B

  1. What are the differences between approach and method?

Ans. The differences between approach and method are as follows:


The approach is the way in which something is approached.

The method is the way in which something is done.

Process vs Direction

The approach can refer to the direction or angle.

Method refers to a process.

Theory vs Guidelines

The approach can refer to the theoretical framework in general.

Method refers to step by step guidelines.


The approach has to be decided before selecting the method.

The method can be selected after deciding the approach.

2. Define language from the functional point view.

Definition: Language is the ultimate medium of communication. Some of our words convey meaning, some convey emotions, and some actually produce actions. The language also provides endless opportunities for fun because of its limitless, sometimes nonsensical, and always changing nature. From the functional point of view, the language, in short, can be defined in the following way:

Language is expressive

Verbal communication helps us meet various needs through our ability to express ourselves. In terms of instrumental needs, we use verbal communication to ask questions that provide us with specific information. We also use verbal communication to describe things, people, and ideas. Verbal communication helps us inform, persuade, and entertain others, which as we will learn later are the three general purposes of public speaking. It is also through our verbal expressions that our personal relationships are formed. At its essence, language is expressive. Verbal expressions help us communicate our observations, thoughts, feelings, and needs.

Expressing observations

When we express observations, we report on the sensory information we are taking or have taken in. Eyewitness testimony is a good example of communicating observations.

Expressing thoughts

When we express our thoughts, we draw conclusions based on what we have experienced. In the perception process, this is similar to the interpretation step. We take various observations and evaluate and interpret them to assign them meaning.

Expressing feelings

When we express feelings, we communicate our emotions. Expressing feelings is a difficult part of verbal communication, because there are many social norms about how, why, when, where, and to whom we express our emotions. Norms for emotional expression also vary based on nationality and other cultural identities and characteristics such as age and gender.

Expressing Needs

When we express needs, we are communicating in an instrumental way to help us get things done. Since we almost always know our needs more than others do, it is important for us to be able to convey those needs to others.

3. What is communicative competence?

Communicative competence: Communicative competence is a term in linguistics that refers to a language user’s grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology, and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately. Communicative competence is made up of four competence areas: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic.

Linguistic competence: Linguistic competence is knowing how to use the grammar, syntax, and vocabulary of a language. Linguistic competence asks: What words do I use? How do I put them into phrases and sentences?

Sociolinguistic competence: Sociolinguistic competence is knowing how to use and respond to language appropriately, given the setting, the topic, and the relationships among the people communicating. Sociolinguistic competence asks: Which words and phrases fit this setting and this topic? How can one express a specific attitude?

Discourse competence: Discourse competence is knowing how to interpret the larger context and how to construct longer stretches of language so that the parts make up a coherent whole. Discourse competence asks: How are words, phrases, and sentences put together to create conversations, speeches, email messages, newspaper articles?

Strategic competence: Strategic competence is knowing how to recognize and repair communication breakdowns, how to work around gaps in one’s knowledge of the language, and how to learn more about using the language in specific contexts.

4. Write the purpose teaching vocabulary.

The purpose of teaching vocabulary: Vocabulary represents one of the most important skills necessary for teaching and learning a foreign language. It is the basis for the development of all the other skills like Reading comprehension, Listening comprehension, speaking, writing, spelling, and pronunciation. Vocabulary is the main tool for students to use English effectively That is why the teaching of vocabulary is important because without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. People need to use words to express themselves in the English language, most learners acknowledge the importance of vocabulary acquisition. This is why most of the words need to be taught so that there cannot be many problems as in communication due to a lack of vocabulary. Some other students might be confronted with the problem of forgetting the words immediately after the teacher has elicited the meaning of the words or after looking at them in the dictionary and this also is caused by lack of vocabulary. The more words students learn, the easier they memorize them. The teacher has an essential role in helping students to improve vocabulary. So, it is transparent that the purpose of teaching vocabulary means making communication more effective.

5. What is ‘tissue rejection’?

Tissue rejection: The term ‘tissue rejection’ was first coined in the context of language learning by Adrian Holliday (1992) to describe the failed role of innovation in a learning context. In particular, he used the term as a metaphor for what happens when a teaching method, which works in a particular educational institution, is introduced into a different setting and fails to capture it there.

Despite advances in curriculum design approaches, ELT projects often fail to produce innovations that are meaningful in the long run and acceptable to the host organization. In other words, it is called ’tissue rejection’: the innovation is rejected sooner or later because it does not fit. Thus, in short, tissue rejection means the failure of new and innovative approaches to second language learning and teaching.

6. What is the difference between language acquisition and language learning?

Introduction: Some people use the term ‘language acquisition’ for all steps including how to read and write a language fluently while others use the term ‘language learning’ for children. But there is a fundamental difference between these two terms.

কিছু লোক কীভাবে সাবলীলভাবে কোনও ভাষা পড়তে এবং লিখতে হয় সেজন্য সমস্ত পদক্ষেপের জন্য ‘ভাষা অধিগ্রহণ’ শব্দটি ব্যবহার করে অন্যরা বাচ্চাদের জন্য ‘ভাষাশিক্ষা’ শব্দটি ব্যবহার করেন। তবে এই দুটি শর্তের মধ্যে একটি মৌলিক পার্থক্য রয়েছে।

Acquisition: Children acquire language through a natural, subconscious process during which they are unaware of grammatical rules. This takes place especially when they acquire their first language (s). They repeat what they listen to from others and thus get a feeling of right and wrong. In order to acquire a language, they need a source of natural communication, which is usually the mother, father, and relatives. They will repeat what they hear, use word discipline until they understand, and use it purposefully in their communication.

শিশুরা একটি প্রাকৃতিক, অবচেতন প্রক্রিয়ার মাধ্যমে ভাষা অর্জন করে যার সময় তারা ব্যাকরণগত নিয়ম সম্পর্কে অজানা। এটি স্থান পায় বিশেষত যখন তারা তাদের প্রথম ভাষা (গুলি) অর্জন করে। তারা অন্যের কাছ থেকে যা শুনে তা পুনরাবৃত্তি করে এবং এভাবে সঠিক এবং ভুলের অনুভূতি লাভ করে। কোনও ভাষা অর্জনের জন্য, তাদের প্রাকৃতিক যোগাযোগের একটি উত্স প্রয়োজন, যা সাধারণত মা, বাবা এবং আত্মীয় হয়। তারা যা শুনবে তার পুনরাবৃত্তি করবে, বোঝার আগ পর্যন্ত শব্দ শৃঙ্খলা ব্যবহার করবে এবং তাদের যোগাযোগে এটি উদ্দেশ্যমূলকভাবে ব্যবহার করবে।

Learning: Language learning, on the other hand, is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. Language learning is not an appropriate activity for very young children as the presuppositions of language learning are that the language learners must have a conscious knowledge of the new language that they want to learn.

Language learners usually possess a basic knowledge of the grammar of the first language, that they acquired. They know the differences what a grammatically correct word order is in a sentence in the language. Contrariwise, when we learn a new language we have a deductive approach to the phonology, morphology, lexicography, and syntax of the target language. It means that we carefully read the grammar of the target language and try to memorize the facts or grammatical rules which are essential.

অন্যদিকে ভাষাশিক্ষা হ’ল ভাষার বিধিগুলির প্রত্যক্ষ নির্দেশের ফল। ভাষা শিক্ষা খুব অল্প বয়স্ক শিশুদের জন্য উপযুক্ত ক্রিয়াকলাপ নয় কারণ ভাষা শিক্ষার অনুমিতিগুলি হ’ল যে ভাষা শিখার শিক্ষার্থীদের অবশ্যই তারা যে নতুন ভাষা শিখতে চায় সে সম্পর্কে সচেতন জ্ঞান থাকতে হবে। ভাষা শিক্ষার্থীরা সাধারণত প্রথম ভাষার ব্যাকরণের প্রাথমিক জ্ঞান রাখেন যা তারা অর্জন করেছিল। ব্যাকরণগতভাবে সঠিক শব্দ শৃঙ্খলাটি ভাষার একটি বাক্যে কী রয়েছে তা তারা জানেন। বিপরীতে, যখন আমরা একটি নতুন ভাষা শিখি তখন লক্ষ্য ভাষার ভাষার শব্দবিজ্ঞান, রূপচর্চা, শব্দকোষ এবং সংশ্লেষের প্রতি আমাদের অনুকৃত দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি থাকে। এর অর্থ হল যে আমরা লক্ষ্য ভাষার ব্যাকরণটি যত্ন সহকারে পড়ি এবং প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্য বা ব্যাকরণ সংক্রান্ত নিয়মগুলি মুখস্থ করার চেষ্টা করি।

Conclusion: However, it is transparent that acquisition and learning quite different from each other, and acquisition long lasts but learning is not long-lasted comparing to acquisition. The acquisition is a natural way and learning is the hard way.

Part – C

  1. Define Linguistic Imperialism. Discuss the role of English Language Teaching in Linguistic Imperialism.

Linguistic Imperialism: Linguistic means scientific study of language and imperialism stands for expansion of power over the weaker. So, “Linguistic Imperialism” means imposition of one language on the speakers of other language.

A working definition of ‘linguistic imperialism’ provided by Philipson is as follows:

“Linguistic Imperialism is the process by which the dominance of English is asserted and maintained by the establishment and continuous reconstitution of structural and cultural inequalities between English and other languages.”

From this definition, it is understood that English linguistic imperialism involves both material and ideological dominance of English over other languages and cultures.

Role of English language teaching in Linguistic Imperialism

Linguistic imperialism has not come over night. It first came in light in 1930s and successfully appeared in 1992 because of influential teaching of English throughout the world.

English teaching kills off other languages

There is no country in the world where English is not taught with enthusiasm particularly in developing and poor countries. In the real environment of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, English has grasped the most significance attraction to the students and teachers. Mother tongue of these countries as teaching profession has a tiny prestige and validity. On the other hand, the English teaching has got utmost significance that is why Philipson asserts that English is both ‘replacing’ as well as ‘displacing’ other languages. Thus, English language teaching plays a vital role for ‘linguistic imperialism’.

Inequality between English and local languages

English language teaching has created inequalities between English and local languages. Such inequalities can be illustrated by ‘Bilingualism’ that is fluency in two languages.  In case of bilingualism, English has advanced over local languages. Take for an example, in India the dominance of English hampers or thwarts the natural multilingual process. The reason of these inequalities is certainly English language teaching and international significance of English.

ELT was masterminded as an imperialist

According to Philipson, ELT enterprise only serves for British and American interests. For him, ELT professionalism is nothing but an attempt to legitimate dominated relationship.  He illustrates this by creating a term as ‘fallacies. Teachers of IELTS, GRE, TOEFL are the advocate of linguistic imperialism. Such courses have been launched throughout the world by the British and American so critically for the purpose of linguistic imperialism.

Other causes of linguistic imperialism: Besides, there are some other causes of linguistic imperialism. Capacities, resources and use which are categorized by Philipson as the prime causes of linguistic imperialism since English is a rich language and in case of function it is an international language.

Thus, we can conclude that if there is no English teaching, there is no “Linguistic Imperialism”.

2. What is direct method (DM)? How is it different from Grammar Translation Method (GTM)?

Direct Method: The method of teaching foreign language without the use of mother tongue is called a direct method. It only uses target language to teach target language. It is also called natural language because the learners who follow direct method do not use mother tongue to learn second language.

According to Oxford Advanced American Dictionary, the direct method is a way of teaching a foreign language and not treating the study of grammar as the most important thing.

So, the direct method is a system of teaching a foreign language using only that language.

Differences between GTM and DM or GTM vs DM: Grammar Translation Method and Direct Method, both are leading methods of second language teaching, but they are conspicuously different from each other in respect of the following fields.

i. Goal of method
GTM: The students should be able to read literature written in the target language.
DM: The students should learn how to communicate in the target language.
ii. Skills of method
GTM: Reading and writing skills are improved in GTM.
DM: Spoken and listening skills are the main focus of DM.
iii. Role of the teacher
GTM: The teacher is the authority in the classroom.
DM: The teacher and students are more like partners in teaching- learning procedure.
iv. Role of the students
GTM: The students play a passive role and do what the teacher instructs.
DM: The students play an active role with interactional participation.
v. Characteristic of teaching and learning process
GTM: Accuracy of grammar and translation is emphasized. Grammar is taught in deductive method. Students are ordered to memorize vocabulary meaning equivalent to mother tongue and in GTM speaking and listening receive little or no attention.
DM: Grammar is taught in inductive method. Speaking and listening are taught based on native like pronunciation and correct grammar. Vocabulary is taught through synonyms and antonyms directly.
vi. Role of students’ native language
GTM: The students’ native language is mostly used for translation.
DM: The students’ native language is a secondary tool in the classroom because it is hardly used.
vii. Teacher’s responding to the students’ errors
GTM: Students’ errors are corrected by the teacher.
DM: Students’ errors are left for self-correction.
viii. Label of students
GTM: All labels of students are fit and could be matched.
DM: Only enthusiastic students are perfect.
Conclusion: To conclude, both the methods are vividly opposite to each other. The weaknesses of the Grammar Translation Method are the strength of the Direct Method or vice versa at all.

3. Discuss Audio Lingual Method.
Introduction: Audio Lingual Method is one of the earliest and established methods of second language teaching. This method mainly focuses on the communicative competence with limited and common communicative structures.

  1. Key concept:
    The Audio-Lingual Method is called Army Method. In ALM, mainly three things are emphasized such as:
    i. Certain habit formation through repetition and reinforcement.
    ii. Structural linguistics means formal language is emphasized.
    iii. No explicit grammar instruction which means that in ALM, the syntactic explanation of the sentence is not given.
  2. Brief history:
    Audio Lingual Method originated during the second world war. Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) was established in 1942 to develop the foreign language communicative skills of American soldiers.
  3. Objective:
    i. To attain conversational skills in a foreign language.
    ii. To increase demands for English courses for foreign students.
    iii. To develop communicative competence in learners.
  4. Key features:
    i. Dialogue is the main feature of ALM.
    ii. Memorization of sentence structure.
    iii. Repetition drill for memorizing sentence patterns.
    iv. No explanation of grammar.
    v. Limited vocabulary.
    vi. Emphasizing phonetics.
    vii. Target language-based teaching method.
    viii. Very little use or no use of mother tongue.
    ix. Introducing language laboratory.
  5. Techniques:
    i. Language is taught through dialogues with useful use of vocabulary and common structures of communication. For example:
    Complex structure: This letter has been sent to you by Mr. Khan.
    Common structure: Mr. Khan sends you this letter.
    ii. Memorization of dialogue line by line through repetition drills.
    iii. Native like phonetics.
    iv. Natural teaching method because reading and writing are taught after the listening and speaking stage.
    v. Perfect participation since there is enough question-answering session in ALM.
    vi. Inductive grammar teaching: In ALM, the inductive grammar teaching method is applied. Inductive grammar teaching means that grammar is not taught with the explanation of the syntactic process. Rather, the learners must identify the grammar and structure with inference or guess of the sentence structure. For example:
     I went there
     He went there
     You went there
     They went there
     We went there

    From the above sentences, the learners can understand that there is no necessity of a change of verb in past simple tense whatever the subject is.
  6. Advantages or strength: advantages or strengths are the contexts of ALM.
    i. Development of listening and speaking power.
    ii. Correct pronunciation.
    iii. Large class size could be maintained.
    iv. Limited useful vocabulary.
    v. Lucrative for average students.
    vi. Participation of the learners.
  7. Disadvantages or limitations:
    i. Equal importance is not given to all four skills at the time.
    ii. Meaning is neglected.
    iii. Teacher dominated method.
    iv. A mechanical method because of only pattern practice and memorization.
    v. Profitable for the hard-working learners.
    Conclusion: However, it is transparent that Audio Lingual Method cannot be neglected out and out because the low proficiency-learners could be much benefited by this method. Even the semi-educated learners are benefit takers in case of learning the target language.

4. Discuss goals, principles, advantages, and disadvantages of the Audio-Lingual Method.

Introduction: Audio Lingual Method is one of the earliest and established methods of second language teaching. This method mainly focuses on the communicative competence with limited and common communicative structures.
i. To attain conversational skills in a foreign language.
ii. To increase demands for English courses for foreign students.
iii. To develop communicative competence in learners.
Techniques or principles
Language is taught through dialogues with useful use of vocabulary and common structures of communication. For example:
Complex structure: This letter has been sent to you by Mr. Khan.
Common structure: Mr. Khan sends you this letter.
i. Memorization of dialogue line by line through repetition drills.
ii. Native like phonetics.
iii. Natural teaching method because reading and writing are taught after listening and speaking stage.
iv. Perfect participation since there is enough question-answering session in ALM.
v. Inductive grammar teaching: In ALM, the inductive grammar teaching method is applied. Inductive grammar teaching means that grammar is not taught with the explanation of the syntactic process. Rather, the learners must identify the grammar and structure with inference or guess of the sentence structure. For example:
 I went there
 He went there
 You went there
 They went there
 We went there

From the above sentences, the learners can understand that there is no necessity of a change of verb in past simple tense whatever the subject is.
Advantages or strength: advantages or strengths are the contexts of ALM.
i. Development of listening and speaking power.
ii. Correct pronunciation.
iii. Large class size could be maintained.
iv. Limited useful vocabulary.
v. Lucrative for average students.
vi. Participation of the learners.
Disadvantages or limitations:
i. Equal importance is not given to all four skills at the time.
ii. Meaning is neglected.
iii. Teacher dominated method.
iv. A mechanical method because of only pattern practice and memorization.
v. Profitable for the hard-working learners.
Conclusion: However, it is transparent that Audio Lingual Method cannot be neglected out and out because the low proficiency-learners could be much benefited by this method. Even the semi-educated learners are benefit takers in case of learning the target language.

5. Discuss the major strategies or techniques of improving vocabulary.

Introduction: In the context of vocabulary significance there is a saying that little can be done without grammar, but nothing can be done without vocabulary. To put it another way, the vocabulary is the life of communication. Although advanced level vocabulary is very difficult to improve, it can be done very easily by following some major techniques.

Vocabulary development

Vocabulary is an essential element for all communication. One of the main tasks of a language teacher is to develop a rich and useful list of students’ vocabulary. There are many techniques for teaching vocabulary. These are discussed below:

Inspiration for extensive reading

One of the most effective strategies for enriching vocabulary is to encourage wide reading. Extensive reading habits help students in many ways, such as establishing permanently familiar words and encountering new words.

Emphasis on learning from context

If a student reads regularly and extensively his or her textbook, he or she will not only be able to enhance store of vocabulary but also achieve an extraordinary result.

Reading, writing and discussion

It is as true as the sun rising and setting that there is no substitute for reading, writing, and discussion to enhance vocabulary. This combo practice must be maintained.

Repetition drill for using possible sentences

A language teacher must design his class including most possible sentences which are used in day to day communication. If three to six thousand possible sentences are designed and practiced repeatedly, it will be established withing students abidingly.

Analyzing parts of words

Analyzing parts of words means suffixes, infixes and prefixes because new words are formed adding suffixes and prefixes with the roots. As for example the word “abnormal” has been formed adding prefix ‘ab’ with normal. So, analyzing of parts of words will improve vocabulary.

Practicing synonyms and antonyms

Practicing synonyms and antonyms is very effective for the purpose of improving vocabulary. It is believed that the root words are not more than ten thousand, but the synonyms and antonyms have made it higher and higher such as the word simple has five to six synonyms used in daily conversation.

i. Encouraging oral language use
ii. Keyword method
iii. Creating deep interest in language
iv. And so on.

Conclusion: In termination, it is to be told that improving is not an easy task, but the devotional application of the above strategies must help students to achieve their goal in field vocabulary.

6. Discuss the Theories of First Language Acquisition.

Ans. Theories of Language Learning is divided into two parts:
i. Theories of First Language Acquisition and
ii. Theories of Second Language Development.
Before the discussion, we need to know about acquisition and learning:
Language Acquisition: Language acquisition means the process by which human beings achieve the capacity to understand and realize language and also to produce and use words and sentences for communication. This is called Language acquisition is one of the authentic and quintessential traits of the human sub-conscious process in which the learners are only aware of communication. Language acquisition is one of the authentic and quintessential traits of human beings because without language human civilization is paralyzed. The acquisition is basically called implicit learning that is ever lasted, and it is out and out distinguished from second language acquisition.
Language Learning: Language Learning refers to the process in which learners attain language capacity in the linguistic procedure that means in a conscious effort by knowing the rules of grammar, memorizing vocabulary, and not being aware of communicative purposes. This is a very difficult process for developing language skills. This is also called explicit learning that is not long-lasted at all. Most second-language learners strictly follow this process.
Theories of First Language Acquisition: Sundry theories have been proposed by various psychologists as to language acquisition. Here the major theories are:

  1. Behaviourism, in other words Behaviourist or Learning Theory, was introduced by American psychologist John B. Watson in 1913 and developed by Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov’s ‘Classical Conditioning’, Skinner’s ‘Operant Conditioning’ and Osgood’s ‘Meditation Theory’.
  2. Mentalism, in other words Linguistic or Innatist Theory, is alternative to the behiourists’ inadequate language learning explanation. This theory proves that language is autonomous and property of mind. The prime personality behind this theory is Noam Chomsky who illustrates that humans learn language by dint of internal capacity, and he describes this universal principles and linguistic knowledge of natural human language. ‘Internal faculty’ known as a ‘Language Acquisition Device’ (LAD) contains universal principles and linguistic knowledge of natural human language.
  3. Cognitive theory means that normal children start their object performance, learn in many ways simultaneously and learn the world around them first. This is a reaction against the dominant innatist theory because a group of psychologists claimed that cognitive was the major guiding force behind language acquisition. This theory is called a temporal development because of not having complete international function.
  4. Social Interactionist Theory is a type of language acquisition theory that means that language is learnt by active interaction between child and environment. Here Chomsky’s LAD, Brunner’s LASS (Language Acquisition Socialization System) and watching Tv and listening Radio exist but not like critical period.
  5. Maturation Theory or Critical Theory Hypothesis claims the critical period of language acquisition. The range of the period is completed in early puberty. This theory was introduced by Arnold Gessel in 1925. The theory concentrates on the course, the pattern and maturation growth in children.

7. Explain the social and psychological factors that play in the acculturation model of second language development.

Or, discuss the Acculturation Model of second language acquisition.

The Acculturation Model

The Acculturation Model is one of the theories of second language acquisition proposed by John Schumann in 1978. The process of acculturation was defined by Brown as “the process of being adapted to a new culture” which involves a new orientation of thinking and feeling on the part of an L2 learner.

According to Oxford Learners’ Dictionary, acculturation is the process of learning to live successfully in a different culture; the process of helping somebody to do this. In other words, it stands for assimilation or digestion to a different culture, typically the dominant one.

Social and psychological factors

The acculturation Model came into light by the practical study of Schumann on the non-English learners. This process of acculturation may impact both social and psychological well-being that is acquired by learners from infancy. Some social and psychological factors have been prescribed by Schumann for acquiring second language by applying Acculturation Model.

The social factors: The prescribed social factors which are as follows:

Social dominance: This is the first and foremost factor in which political, cultural and economic differences are limned to create an equal social link between the Target Language Community (TLC) and Second Language Community (L2C).

Integration pattern: This is one of such social factors that assures integrated connection with learners and TLC in which sufficient contacts are established to acquire second language.

Enclosure: According to Schumann, this social factor will vanish all kind of social barriers between TLC and L2C in the way of L2 acquiring by sharing social facilities such as schools, churches, language clubs etc.

Cultural congruence: Cultural congruence or similarity confirms the learning environment comfortable and easy because when the two cultures are similar, there is no gap of communication between TLC and L2C groups.

Attitude factor: This is one of the most important social factors of Acculturation Model. Positive attitude of the groups to each other is a must for L2 acquisition like breath for life.

Miscellaneous social factors: Some other social factors are size factor. Cohesiveness and intended length of residence which also play a vital role to create a friendly social environment for L2 acquiring.

Thus, social factors remove bad surroundings TLC and L2C for the purpose of L2 acquisition.

Psychological factors

The psychological factors are related to affective in nature. These factors which influence

Psychological distance are:

Motivation: Motivation is inevitable for L2c. Schumann argues that without motivational reasons for language learning no learner can be able to be interested in SLA. Acculturation Model helps the L2 learners to remove psychological drawbacks and distance through representation the value of TL.

Language shock: Language shock stands for psychological doubt and confusion as to using TL. So, Schumann suggests that language shock must be overcome to achieve L2.

Cultural shock: Cultural shock refers to mental stress, fear and anxiety as a result of entering a new culture. Here by this factor Schumann means to say that if it is not conquered, rejection may happen in case of L2 picking up.

Conclusion: Though there is a slight criticism of Acculturation Model, Schumann has made a great contribution to the theories of Second Language Acquisition by providing suffice information about social and psychological since they are the main impediments in the way of picking up L2.

8. What are the features and objectives of Desuggestopedia?
Desuggestopedia is a teaching method that focuses on how to deal with the relationship between mental potential and learning ability. It is very appropriate to use in teaching speaking for young language learners. This method was introduced by a Bulgarian psychologist and educator, Georgi Lazanov in the late 1970s. Lazanov created suggestopedia for learning that capitalized on relaxed states of mind for maximum retention or memory material.
The goals or objectives

  1. To help students eliminate and overcome the barriers to learning.
  2. Increase the communicative ability of the students.
    Key features / Key Elements
    Some of the key elements of Suggestopedia include a rich sensory learning environment (pictures, color, music, etc.), a positive expectation of success and the use of a varied range of methods: dramatized texts, music, active participation in songs and games, etc.
  3. Classroom atmosphere- decorations and posters
  4. A new name and occupation- to dispel the anxiety. To put it differently, Students are encouraged to be childlike.
  5. Handout or leaflet for advanced students
  6. No test, no assignment
  7. Conversation with translation in music- to activate the ‘whole brain’ of the students
  8. Games, Songs, and Role Plays helps in strengthening the classroom materials
  9. Vocabulary is emphasized.
  10. Speaking communicatively is emphasized. Students also read in the target language and write.

9. Identify and discuss the challenges in implementing CLT in Bangladesh.

Introduction: CLT which stands for Communicative Language Teaching is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages. In 2001, CLT was introduced from six standard to twelve standards but in reality, it is not seen at all since 95% students after passing twelve years of education cannot read and write Standard English let alone fluent speaking.

The major challenges in implementing CLT

Nonetheless, government’s introduction of CLT in Bangladesh, the successful implementation of CLT is hampered due to sundry factors. In recent years, several researchers have made attempts to investigate the challenges of implementing CLT in Bangladesh.

Mammoth class size

One of the maximal challenges to implementing CLT in Bangladesh is a number of students in the classroom. An American linguist Larsen-Freeman, (2000) in her book “Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching” has emphasized on the small class for implementing CLT. The number of students in language should be limited within 25-30.

Teacher – student ratio

Another challenge for CLT in Bangladesh is teacher – student ratio. In the institutions of Bangladesh, the ratio between teacher and student could not be determined. But according the Cambridge University Education Policy, teacher – student ratio must be 1: 12.

Cultural inexpediency

Cultural inappropriateness that is another major challenge in respect of Bangladesh to redact CLT reflects a long tradition of unconditional obedience to authority. Rahman and Karim (2015) asserted, “One of the implementation problems of CLT in Bangladesh is that the approach is not always appropriate with the socio-cultural context of the country” (p. 84). Besides students have lack of team spirit.

Mismatch between curriculum and assessment

The English curriculum of Bangladesh is based on four skills of language – listening, speaking, reading and writing. But the teachers lay assertion on reading and writing and the exam system is also based on reading and writing devoid of listening and speaking.

Lack of orientation or tendency

No initiative has so far been taken by the government of Bangladesh to familiarize CLT with the teaching community though the teachers are repeatedly urged to adapt to CLT. According to the researchers, a nationwide orientation has not yet been possible to introduce CLT among the teachers in Bangladesh.

The British Council in Bangladesh offers 40-hour intensive training in CLT. However, the cost of this training program is pretty high. Only a few private colleges in and around the capital city can afford to get their teachers trained from the British Council. Moreover, teachers of Bangladesh in general have almost no access to national, regional and international seminars, conferences and journals on CLT.

Lack of pre-service and in-service training

In Bangladesh, “pre-service training” is not required to join as English teachers at any level. Besides, the “in-service” opportunity for training in CLT in Bangladesh is almost absent (Rahman and Karim, 2015, p. 84). The government has not yet been able to establish a Teachers’ Training College for tertiary-level English teachers. Therefore, the lack of training facilities in CLT is a big challenge to implementing CLT in Bangladesh.

Other challenges
i. Economic constraints
ii. Teachers’ deficiency in spoken English
iii. Inadequate technological support
iv. Lack of research facility etc.

Suggestions or recommendations

Several researchers have come up with their recommendations to overcome the challenges to implementing CLT in Bangladesh. Most of them have given similar types of recommendations based on the context of Bangladesh. However, different researchers have emphasized different aspects. For example;

i. Making the class size smaller and providing adequate teaching aids appropriate for CLT.
ii. Providing massive CLT training for English teachers and lessening English teachers’ work-load.
iii. Improving the infrastructures to make suitable for CLT and increasing teachers’ remunerations.
iv. The modification of exam system to make it communicative.
v. Government of Bangladesh should take long term policy for the implementation of CLT.
vi. Motiving the learners to speak English.
vii. A language club should be established in every school.

Conclusion: To sum up, it must be asserted that possessing four skills of English is impossible without redacting CLT. The above recommendations must be the weapon to implement CLT in Bangladesh.

10. Discuss Krashen’s Monitor Model.

Introduction: Stephen Krashen who is a linguist and educational researcher has developed a model of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) that is known as monitor model.

Monitor Model: The monitor model is an interesting set of five central hypotheses developed in late 1970s but accepted in 1980s. This is the most comprehensive model of SLA. Each of the hypotheses is summarized here so that Krasen’s views on motivative or causative variables can be considered.

The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis

This hypothesis or theory of Krashen claims that there are two ways of second language development which are acquisition and learning. He differentiates between acquiring and learning language. He asserts that learning language is not really similar to spoken language. According to him, teachers must focus on using natural, authentic and meaningful activities in the classroom in order to improve communicative skills for the real world.


It is a subconscious or unconscious and informal Learning process via interactional activities.


It is a conscious learning via a formal process such as grammar/structure


Picking up a language via meaningful and interactional activities.


It means knowing about a language.


It is long lasted and not classroom dependent.


It is long lasted and happens in classroom.

Thus, acquired knowledge and learnt knowledge are stored separately and according to the Acquisition- Learning theory, learning cannot lead to acquisition.

The Natural Order Hypothesis
Krashen illustrates that there is a natural order to acquire language rules. He suggests two ideas in this hypothesis.
I. The acquisition of grammatical structure follows a natural order which is predictable and imitates that of first language acquisition.
II. There is a natural development in the process of acquiring a second language acquisition.
So, the research shows that grammatical structures and morphemes second language are acquired like the acquisition of the first language.

Monitor model Hypothesis
Here in this hypothesis, monitor is synonymous to edit that monitor model means the process of editing in case of using the second language for communication. Some aspects of monitor theory:
i. Self-correct or repair.
ii. Conscious knowledge of what is told and write.
iii. Learning the required rules and proper application of these rules.
As for example: “I goed home” is a wrong sentence but because of monitoring power it will be rectified as “I went home”
Therefore, Krashen does assert that learning is important so that people can monitor the language that they produce.

The Input Hypothesis

This is the most effective dogma for SLA. Krashen argues that the input received by the learner must not only be comprehensible but also slightly beyond the current competent level of the learner. This concept is represented as i+1. Here, “I” stands for current level and 1 refers to improvement of level by gathering knowledge at least increasing a level continuously.

The Affective Filter Hypothesis

The term ‘affective filter’ stands for adherence to acquiring language avoiding kind of negative aspects. Low anxiety environment, self-confidence, self-esteem and self-motivation are the results of the Affective Filter Hypothesis in accordance with Krashen.

Conclusion: Therefore, Krashen’s monitor model is one of the most important theories of second language acquisition since it increases acquiring and learning technique.

11. What is Reform Movement? Discuss the role of the Reform Movement in the history of English Language Teaching focusing the principles of Reform Movement.

Reform Movement: Reform stands for making a change, improvement, repairing or rectification and movement means going opposite to or reaction against an established idea or rule due to its drawbacks or monopolies. In the second half of 19th century, GTM was to face criticism due to its insufficient techniques and outputs for second language development.

As a result, a “Reform Movement” was a must for language teaching and it happened and came into being with certain principles. The principles of ‘Reform Movement’ have been playing a vital role in the history of language teaching with a triumph march since its birth.

The roles of Reform Movement focusing on its principles

Some leading linguists such as philologist, phonetician and grammarian Henry Sweet of England, German illustrious linguist Wilhelm Vietor and founder of IPA (International Phonetic Association) Paul Passy of France came forward for ‘Reform Movement’. They have also provided some principles which have brought about a revolutionary or dramatic change in language teaching.

Speaking and asking teaching procedure

Prior to “Reform Movement”, the language teaching procedures consisted on reading and writing excluding speaking and asking. In such teaching process, the pupils never got real world communicative competence. But the change started and has been perpetual because of principles of ‘Reform Movement’ which are “emphasis on spoken language over written language and target language-based classroom discourse”. So, speaking and asking teaching procedure is the first and foremost product of ‘Reform Movement’.

IPA based language teaching

International Phonetic Alphabet based language teaching is the second most significant change in the history of language teaching owing to the “phonetics and modern linguistic studies” principle of ‘Reform Movement’. According to Wilhelm Vietor, rote learning teaching was not only not moral but also useless as the students did not get any result for international communication without having proper phonetics.

Inductive grammar teaching

Inductive grammar teaching means that the students are to figure out the grammatical rules themselves. According to sundry principles of ‘Reform Movement’, grammar would be taught after having learnt how to speak and in a sensible way when needed. One of such principles is “Grammar should be taught inductively”. Thus, ‘Reform Movement’ in language teaching is a blessing for students.

Oral discussion language teaching

Replacement of translation-based language teaching by oral discussion language teaching has been possible by the influential principles of ‘Reform Movement’. Translation of long text was tedious and useless and had to be replaced by oral discussions about those text in class. This language teaching has come into being because of the principles of “Avoidance of translation” and “Inclusion of everyday vocabulary and phrases”.

Thus, the “Reform Movement” has changed the whole scenario of language teaching techniques fulfilling the choices of students and given forth a huge number of effective “Target Language” teaching methods such as DM, ALM, CLT, and so on.

12. What is TBLT? Discuss the types of tasks.

Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) is a teaching approach which focuses on offering learners’ tasks so that they can actively engage in using and practicing language in communicative situations, and on measuring the language outcomes that will arise from those tasks.

For example, a speaking task can develop students’ ability to speak fluently and accurately when communicating with their peers (David Nunan 2004, is an Australian linguist who has focused on the teaching of English. He is the author of the ELT textbook series “Go For It!”). To put it differently, in TBLT, the basic aim of second language teaching is to enable learners to use the target language for social functional action or situation communication. TBLT can be considered a branch of communicative language teaching (CLT).

Task of TBLT

“Task-based Language Learning and Teaching “published in 2003, Rod Ellis in his book has defined tasks or activities having four kinds of criteria:

  1. Focus on meaning
  2. Some kind of gap such as information etc.
  3. Use your own linguistics resources
  4. Having communicative outcome not simply display of language

Task is divided into two categories in TBLT:

Numerous definitions of “task” have been provided by different scholars, and each definition has its own focus. Nunan classifies “task” into pedagogical tasks (occur in classroom) and real-world tasks or target tasks (occur beyond the classroom). According Ellis, two types of tasks are as follow:

Unfocused task: Unfocused tasks are tasks that are designed to illicit general sample of language that is to say they have been not decided in such a way for useful and essential grammatical structure.

Focused task: The focused tasks are tasks that have been designed to create a communicative context for the use of predetermined grammatical structures.

Ellis in his book “Task-based Language Learning and Teaching” considers three principal ways in which focused tasks or activities have been designed by the researchers:

  1. Structure based production task
  2. Comprehension tasks and
  3. Consciousness raising task

The above designing of focused task focuses that linguistics resources are inevitable for producing language in which students can perform effectively the communicative purpose of language. To put it differently, students can reconstruct a text using key words and phrases which is called ‘dictogloss’ promote overall syntactic process.

The task which are not comprehensible to the students should not be included for target language learning. For example: The task of astronomy is not perfect for average students.

And finally, it can be concluded that the focused task in the way that implicit learning will be emphasized based on incidents in such a way that can enhance explicit aspects of language. To express it in another way, consciousness-raising tasks aim to teach grammatical rules inductively.

Link of the referred chapters:

  1. Audio Lingual Method
  2. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
  3. Desuggestopedia
  4. Situational Language Teaching (SLT)
  5. Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT)

SR Sarker
SR Sarker
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