Marxist theory or Marxism evolved in the mid-19th century by sociologist and philosopher Karl Marx(1818- 1883). Friedrich Engels further promoted Karl Marx’s ideas. Originally, Marxist theory consisted of three ideologies: philosophical anthropology, a theory of history, and an economic and political program. Karl Marx believed in his views and vowed to make them a reality. Karl Marx also advanced his theory in his famous book Das Kapital.
More Notes: Literature and Society
Marxism’s theory of class struggle posits that class struggle is a law of history and the factors that accelerate economic development. According to Marxism, the rule of history works well for every society consisting of social classes fighting for a higher role in production. Marx saw every society as socially stratified based on classes, where the presence or absence of means of production serves as the basis of separation in the groups. He believed that only two types of classes exist in a capitalist society, the bourgeois (business owners) with the means of production and the proletariat, who turn resources into products.
Another perspective of Marx’s theory of class struggles is that capitalism is defined by commodities, taking the form of services and capital goods. In Marx’s view, employees are commodities sold and bought on the market. Such ordinary laborers cannot wield influential power in the capitalist economic system because they do not own the means of production – such as raw materials, factories, or equipment.
The bourgeoisie uses various means to build up power against the proletariat. The governing elites, charged with guaranteeing universal economic progress, enforce the business owners’ will. They use ideological and political power to enforce laws and property rights.
Marxism doctrine acknowledges that the close interrelation between different relations of each class to the means of production is the main reason for the class conflict.
The best example of Marxism theory is when Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong took over control of China in 1949. He formed a communist country named the People’s Republic of China. It is something that the Marxism ideology aims to achieve.
In termination, we can say that the basis of this theory is class conflicts, which are facilitated due to capitalism. Although people have developed an acceptance of capitalism, it continues to corrupt and corrode values in society even today. This critical theory stands true even today, as capitalism can be seen as a barrier to culture and literature.